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57 mm AZP S-60
S-60-57mm-hatzerim-1
S-60 in an Israeli museum
Type Autocannon
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1950–present
Used by See users
Wars Vietnam War
Cambodian Civil War
Cambodian–Vietnamese War
Iran–Iraq War
Gulf War
Iraq War
numerous others
Specifications
Weight 4,660 kg (10,273 lbs)
Length 8.5 m (27 ft 11 in)
Width 2.054 m (6 ft 9 in)
Height 2.37 m (7 ft 9 in)
Crew 7

Shell 57×348 mm. SR
Caliber 57 mm (2.24 in)
Rate of fire 105-120 rpm (cyclic)
70 rpm (sustained)
Muzzle velocity 1,000 m/s (3,281 ft/s)
Effective range 6,000 m (20,000 ft) (radar guided)
4,000 m (13,000 ft) (optically guided)

57 mm AZP S-60 (Russian: Автоматическая зенитная пушка С-60, abbrev. АЗП (AZP); literally: Automatic anti-aircraft gun S-60) is a Soviet towed, road-transportable, short- to medium-range, single-barrel anti-aircraft gun from the 1950s. The gun was extensively used in Warsaw Pact, Middle Eastern and South-East Asian countries.

HistoryEdit

In the late 1940s, the Soviets started to develop a 57 mm anti-aircraft gun, to replace its 37 mm guns. Three different models were presented, and the winning design was made by V. G. Grabin. According to western intelligence sources, the German prototype gun 5,5 cm Gerät 58 formed the basis for the design. The Soviets were also able to study German 5 cm Flak 41 guns that had been captured following the Battle of Stalingrad. The prototype passed the field tests in 1946 and was accepted into service in 1950, after some minor modifications. The anti-aircraft gun was given the name 57 mm AZP S-60. Grabin continued the development and fielded the SPAAG version ZSU-57-2 in 1955.

The fire direction device was developed from the German Lambda calculator (Kommandogerät 40, 40A, and 40B) and was called PUAZO-5A. It had also a distance measuring device called D-49. The fire direction was also made more effective by including Grom-2 (10 cm wavelength) radars to the AA-batteries. The whole system was called SON-9. Later on, the calculators would be changed into the more modern RPK-1 Vaza, which had been designed by M. M. Kositskin. The calculator and the radars were transported by Ural 375 trucks.

The 57 mm gun replaced the 37 mm divisional guns in Soviet service in the 1950s. A divisional anti-aircraft regiment consisted of two AA-batteries with six 57 mm guns each. The PVO air-defence troops AA-regiments consisted of four 57 mm AA-batteries (24 guns).

In the mid-1960s, the Soviet divisional anti-aircraft units began replacing their AA-guns with missiles, and by the end of the 1970s, the AA-guns had almost disappeared. However, they were used in many other countries.

Operational historyEdit

The S-60 and its Chinese copy (the Type 59) have seen combat in several wars all over the World, e.g. the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War in the Middle East and the Soviet war in Afghanistan. During the Vietnam War, the S-60 was the keystone of North Vietnamese low-altitude air defense and was most effective between 460 meters and 1,500 meters.

In Iraq (Iran–Iraq War, Gulf War and Iraq War), the S-60, normally deployed in battalions of 36 guns, served consistently in defense of divisional headquarters and field artillery assets.

Ammunition typesEdit

The S-60 fires ammunition in 57x348SR caliber, a cartridge noticeably weaker than the 57mm ammunition of either Bofors 57mm AA gun, or Soviet 57 anti-tank guns of World War II. Modern anti-aircraft rounds have not been developed for the gun - the main characteristics of the Soviet-era ammunition is listed in the table below. In addition to these People's Republic of China manufactures ammunition in 57x348SR caliber, designated Type 59 HE-T, Type 59 AP-T, and Type 76 HE-T.

Training rounds include a blank round MK-281 ("Manöver-Kartusche", East German designation), and training rounds with -IN suffix (UBR-281U-IN, UOR-281U-IN) identifying the rounds as fuzeless versions of the APCBC and HE rounds with dummy fuzes and inert filling replacing the explosive cavities.

Designation Type Projectile Weight [g] Bursting charge [g] Muzzle Velocity [m/s] Description
UBR-281/281U APCBC-T 2820 [1] 13 [1] 1000 [1] Anti-tank round with sharp penetrator, blunt cap and an aerodynamic cover, with tracer and a delayed-action base fuze.[1] Penetration 96 mm RHA at 1000 m range or 106mm at 500m.[2] UBR-281 and -281U are loaded with the same projectile and differ only by details in case mouth and swage grooves.[1]
UOR-281 HE-T 2850 [1] 154 [1] 1000 [1] Impact-fuzed fragmentation shell for anti-aircraft use. Nose fuze with self-destruct function and a tracer.[1]
UOR-281U HE-T 2850 [1] 154 [1]
168 [2]
1000 [1] Similar to UOR-281; some sources state the shell is the same as in UOR-281 and the round differs from it only in details of the case mouth and swage grooves (as with the UBR round),[1] while others claim a slightly larger HE filling.[2]
Type 59 AP AP-T  ?  ?  ? Chinese anti-tank round presumably similar to UBR-281/281U.
Type 59 HE HE-T  ?  ?  ? Chinese fragmentation round for anti-aircraft use, presumably similar to UOR-281/281U.
Type 76 HE HE-T  ?  ?  ? Chinese fragmentation round.

VersionsEdit

  • AK-725: Naval version of the S-60 gun. Introduced in 1958. Mounted in single, double and quadruple mounts (designated ZIF-31) on many early Soviet destroyers.
  • ZIF-72: Naval version which is enclosed in a metal housing and fully automatic. Also exported to India. Introduced in the mid-1970s.
  • ZSU-57-2: Self-propelled version with two 57 mm S-60 guns (designated S-68)
  • Type-80: Chinese version of the ZSU-57-2.

OperatorsEdit

S-60 operators

Current and past operators of the S-60 in red.

The S-60 was sold to at least 37 different countries during the Soviet era. The gun was also license manufactured in Poland by Tarnów Metal Works in Tarnów (pl. Zakłady Metalowe Tarnów w Tarnowie) and in China as the Type 59.

  • Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan
  • Flag of Albania.svg Albania
  • Flag of Algeria.svg Algeria: 70 units
  • Flag of Angola.svg Angola
  • Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia
  • Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
  • Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria
  • Flag of Belarus.svg Belarus
  • Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia
  • Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China
  • Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg Republic of the Congo
  • Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba: 400 units
  • Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovakia: 575 units. Passed on to successor states.
  • Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic
  • Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt: 600 units
  • Flag of Ethiopia.svg Ethiopia
  • Flag of Finland.svg Finland: 12 units. Nicknamed Nikolai.
  • Flag of Yugoslavia (1992–2003).svg Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: retired
  • Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia: 60 units
  • Flag of Guinea.svg Guinea: 12 units
  • Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg Guinea-Bissau: 10 units
  • Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary: 186 units (43 in store)
  • Flag of India.svg India
  • Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia: 256 units
  • Flag of Iran.svg Iran
  • Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq
  • Flag of Israel.svg Israel: Captured units
  • Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan: 24 units
  • Flag of Laos.svg Laos
  • Flag of Libya.svg Libya: 90 units
  • Flag of Mali.svg Mali: 6 units
  • Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco
  • Flag of Mauritania.svg Mauritania: 2 units
  • Flag of Moldova.svg Moldova: 12 units
  • Flag of Mozambique.svg Mozambique
  • Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia
  • Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua
  • Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea
  • Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
  • Flag of Poland.svg Poland: 500 units
  • Flag of Romania.svg Romania: 250 units
  • Flag of Russia.svg Russia
  • Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia
  • Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union: Passed on to successor states
  • Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan: Both S-60 and Type 59 versions
  • Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia
  • Flag of Syria.svg Syria: 675 units
  • Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand: 24 units
  • Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan: 22 units
  • Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine: 400 units
  • Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam
  • Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen: 120 units
  • Flag of Yugoslavia (1946–1992).svg Yugoslavia: Passed on to successor states
  • Flag of Zambia.svg Zambia: ca 30 units

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 "Russian Ammunition Page, http://www.russianammo.org
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Jane's Ammunition Handbook, 1994

External linksEdit

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