FANDOM

240,833 Pages

Anthony Wayne
Anthony Wayne.jpg
Nickname Mad Anthony
Born (1745-01-01)January 1, 1745
Died December 15, 1796(1796-12-15) (aged 51)
Place of birth Easttown Township, Pennsylvania
Buried at Fort Presque Isle (now Erie, Pennsylvania)
Allegiance Flag of the United States (1777-1795).svg United States of America
Years of service 1775–1783
1792–1796
Rank US-O6 insignia Colonel 1775–1777
US-O7 insignia Brigadier General 1777–1783
US-O8 insignia Major General 1783; 1792–1796
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War
Battle of Trois-Rivières
Battle of Brandywine
Battle of Paoli
Battle of Germantown
Battle of Monmouth
Battle of Stony Point
Battle of Bull's Ferry
Battle of Green Spring

Northwest Indian War
Siege of Fort Recovery
Battle of Fallen Timbers

Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 – December 15, 1796) was a United States Army officer and statesman. Wayne adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality quickly earned him promotion to brigadier general and the sobriquet Mad Anthony.

Early lifeEdit

Wayne was one of five children born to Isaac Wayne and Elizabeth Eddings Wayne in Easttown Township, near present-day Paoli, Chester County, Pennsylvania. His father had emigrated from Ireland, and was part of a Protestant Anglo-Irish family. Wayne was born on January 1, 1745, in a log cabin on his family's Waynesborough estate. He was educated as a surveyor at his uncle's private academy in Philadelphia, as well as at the College of Philadelphia (now the University of Pennsylvania), where he was in the class of 1765, although he did not earn a degree. In 1766 he was sent by Benjamin Franklin and some associates to work for a year surveying land they owned in Nova Scotia and assisting with starting settlements there. In 1767 he returned to work in his father's tannery, while continuing work as a surveyor. He became a prominent figure in Chester County and served in the Pennsylvania legislature from 1774–1780. He married Mary Penrose in 1766 and they had two children. Their daughter Margretta was born in 1770 and their son Isaac Wayne, future U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania, was born in 1772.[1]

American RevolutionEdit

General Anthony Wayne Statue

A statue of General "Mad" Anthony Wayne stands in Fort Wayne's Freimann Square.

At the onset of the war in 1775, Wayne raised a militia unit and, in 1776, became colonel of the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment. He and his regiment were part of the Continental Army's unsuccessful invasion of Canada where he was sent to aid Benedict Arnold, during which he commanded a successful rear-guard action at the Battle of Trois-Rivières, and then led the distressed forces on Lake Champlain at Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. His service resulted in a promotion to brigadier general on February 21, 1777.

Later, he commanded the Pennsylvania Line at Brandywine, Paoli, and Germantown. After winter quarters at Valley Forge, he led the American attack at the Battle of Monmouth. During this last battle, Wayne's forces were pinned down by a numerically superior British force. However, Wayne held out until relieved by reinforcements sent by Washington. This scenario would play out again years later, in the Southern campaign.

In July 1779 Washington named Wayne to command the Corps of Light Infantry, a temporary unit of four regiments of light infantry companies drawn from all the regiments in the Main Army. Wayne's successful attack on British positions at Stony Point, New York in the Battle of Stony Point was the high point of his revolutionary war service. On July 16, 1779, Wayne personally led a bayonets-only night attack lasting thirty minutes, wherein his three columns of light infantry stormed British fortifications at Stony Point, a cliffside redoubt commanding the southern Hudson River. The success of this operation provided a boost to the morale of an army which had at that time suffered a series of military defeats. The Continental Congress awarded him a medal for the victory.

On July 21, 1780, Washington sent Wayne with two Pennsylvania brigades and four cannons to destroy a blockhouse at Bulls Ferry opposite New York City. In the Battle of Bull's Ferry, Wayne's troops were unable to capture the position, suffering 64 casualties, while inflicting only 21 on the loyalist defenders.[2]

Anthony Wayne 1780

Letter from Anthony Wayne to Israel Shreve, 1780

On January 1, 1781, Wayne served as commanding officer of the Pennsylvania Line of the Continental Army when pay and condition concerns led to the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny,one of the most serious of the war. Wayne successfully resolved the mutiny by dismissing about one half of the line. Wayne largely returned the Pennsylvania Line to full strength by May 1781, but doing so delayed his departure to Virginia, where he had been sent to assist the Marquis de Lafayette against British forces operating there. The line's departure was delayed once more when the men again complained about being paid in the nearly worthless Continental currency.

In Virginia, Wayne led Lafayette's advance forces in an action at Green Spring, where he led a bayonet charge against the numerically superior British forces after stepping into a trap set by Charles Cornwallis. This increased his popular reputation as a bold commander. After the British surrendered at Yorktown, he went further south and severed the British alliance with Native American tribes in Georgia. He then negotiated peace treaties with both the Creek and the Cherokee, for which Georgia rewarded him with the gift of a large rice plantation. He was promoted to major general on October 10, 1783.

Political careerEdit

Valley Forge Anthony Wayne statue

Statue of Wayne at Valley Forge

After the war, Wayne returned to Pennsylvania and served in the state legislature for a year in 1784. He then moved to Georgia and settled upon the tract of land granted him by that state for his military service. He was a delegate to the state convention which ratified the United States Constitution in 1788.

In 1791, he served a year in the Second United States Congress as a U.S. Representative of Georgia but lost his seat during a debate over his residency qualifications and declined to run for re-election in 1792.[3]

Anthony Wayne, uniform

Major-General Anthony Wayne (Pastel by James Sharples, Sr ca. 1795)

President George Washington recalled Wayne from civilian life in order to lead an expedition in the Northwest Indian War, which up to that point had been a disaster for the United States. Many American Indians in the Northwest Territory had sided with the British in the Revolutionary War. In the Treaty of Paris that had ended the conflict, the British had ceded this land to the United States. The Indians, however, had not been consulted, and resisted annexation of the area by the United States. The Western Indian Confederacy achieved major victories over U.S. forces in 1790 and 1791 under the leadership of Blue Jacket of the Shawnees and Little Turtle of the Miamis. They were encouraged and supplied by the British, who had refused to evacuate British fortifications in the region as called for in the Treaty of Paris.

File:American Legion 1794.jpg

Washington placed Wayne in command of a newly formed military force called the "Legion of the United States". Wayne established a basic training facility at Legionville to prepare professional soldiers for his force. Wayne's was the first attempt to provide basic training for regular U.S. Army recruits and Legionville was the first facility established expressly for this purpose.

He then dispatched a force to Ohio to establish Fort Recovery as a base of operations. On August 3, a tree fell on Wayne's tent. He survived, but was rendered unconscious. By the next day, he had recovered sufficiently to resume the march.[4] On August 20, 1794, Wayne mounted an assault on the Indian confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, in modern Maumee, Ohio (just south of present-day Toledo), which was a decisive victory for the U.S. forces, ending the war. Wayne then negotiated the Treaty of Greenville between the tribal confederacy and the United States, which was signed on August 3, 1795. The treaty gave most of what is now Ohio to the United States, and cleared the way for that state to enter the Union in 1803.

Wayne died of complications from gout on December 15, 1796, during a return trip to Pennsylvania from a military post in Detroit, and was buried at Fort Presque Isle (now Erie, Pennsylvania) where the modern Wayne Blockhouse stands. His body was disinterred in 1809 and, after the body was boiled to remove the remaining flesh, as many of the bones as would fit in two saddlebags were relocated by his son Isaac Wayne to the family plot in St. David's Episcopal Church cemetery in Radnor, Pennsylvania.[5] A legend says that many bones were lost along the roadway that encompasses much of modern U.S. Route 322, and that every January 1 (Wayne's birthday), his ghost wanders the highway searching for his lost bones.[6]

Gen Anthony Wayne 1929 Issue-2c

Battle of Fallen Timbers, commemorative issue of 1928, 2c

[[File:Waynesboro.JPG|thumb|upright|His home, Waynesborough in Paoli, Pennsylvania

Gen. Anthony Wayne

Steel engraving of Anthony Wayne by Alonza Chappel

[[File:AnthonyWayneGrave.png|right|thumb|upright|His grave at St. David's

AnthonyWayneBridge

Anthony Wayne Suspension Bridge

Wayne, PA Keystone Marker

Keystone Marker in Wayne, Pennsylvania, named for General Wayne

LegacyEdit

On September 14, 1929, the U.S. Post Office issued a stamp honoring General Wayne which commemorated the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The post office issued a series of stamps often referred to as the "Two Cent Reds" by collectors, issued to commemorate the 150th Anniversaries of the many events that occurred during the American Revolution and to honor people such as General Wayne and those others who were there during these times of struggle. The stamp shows Bruce Saville's Battle of Fallen Timbers Monument.

Municipalities and institutionsEdit

There are many political jurisdictions and institutions named after Wayne, especially in Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana, the region where he fought many of his battles.

BoroughsEdit

  • The Borough of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania
  • The Borough of Waynesburg, Pennsylvania

Businesses, structuresEdit

  • The former Anthony Wayne Bank in Fort Wayne
  • Anthony Wayne Barber Shop in Maumee, Ohio
  • Anthony Wayne, a campsite at Woodland Trails Scout Reservation in Camden, Ohio
  • The Anthony Wayne Movie Theater in Wayne, Pennsylvania
  • Anthony Wayne Recreation Area in Harriman State Park, New York
  • AWS, formerly Anthony Wayne Rehabilitation Center for the Handicapped and Blind, Inc. in Fort Wayne, Indiana[7]
  • Anthony Wayne Suspension Bridge near downtown Toledo, Ohio
  • Anthony Wayne Terrace Housing Association Baden, Pennsylvania
  • Mad Anthony Brewing Company, in Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • Fort Wayne in Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • Fort Wayne in Detroit, Michigan
  • General Wayne Inn in Merion, Pennsylvania
  • "Mad Anthony's", a local pub in Waterville, Ohio
  • Wayne Corporation defunct school bus manufacturer, originally Wayne Agricultural Works, then Wayne Works
  • Wayne Hospital in Greenville, Ohio
  • Anthony Wayne Hotel in Akron, Ohio, demolished in 1996
  • Anthony Wayne Motel in Yellow Springs, Ohio on US Route 68
  • General Wayne Inn, Honey Brook, Pa. on US Route 322

CitiesEdit

  • The City of Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • The City of Wayne, Michigan
  • The City of Wayne, Nebraska
  • The City of Waynesboro, Georgia
  • The City of Waynesboro, Mississippi
  • The City of Waynesboro, Tennessee
  • The City of Waynesboro, Virginia

CommunitiesEdit

CountiesEdit

  • Wayne County, Georgia
  • Wayne County, Illinois
  • Wayne County, Indiana
  • Wayne County, Iowa
  • Wayne County, Kentucky
  • Wayne County, Michigan
  • Wayne County, Mississippi
  • Wayne County, Missouri
  • Wayne County, Nebraska
  • Wayne County, New York
  • Wayne County, North Carolina
  • Wayne County, Ohio
  • Wayne County, Pennsylvania
  • Wayne County, Tennessee
  • Wayne County, West Virginia

Forests and parksEdit

TownsEdit

RiversEdit

  • the Mad River, a tributary of the Great Miami River, Dayton, Ohio

Schools and CollegesEdit

Streets and highwaysEdit

  • Anthony Boulevard, Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • Anthony Wayne Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio
  • (Anthony) Wayne Avenue, Ticonderoga, New York
  • Anthony Wayne Drive, in Detroit, Michigan
  • Anthony Wayne Drive, in Baden, Pennsylvania
  • Anthony Wayne Drive, in Chesterbrook, Pennsylvania
  • Anthony Wayne Drive, Warminster, Pennsylvania
  • Anthony Wayne Trail, in Toledo, Ohio
  • Anthwyn Road, Merion, Pennsylvania (across from the inn)
  • Mad Anthony Street, Cincinnati, Ohio
  • Mad Anthony Street, Millersburg, Ohio
  • North Wayne Avenue, Lockland, Ohio
  • North Wayne Street, West Chester, Pennsylvania
  • South Wayne Avenue, Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • South Wayne Avenue in Lockland, Ohio
  • South Wayne Street, West Chester, Pennsylvania
  • Southwest Anthony Wayne Drive, Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • Wayne Avenue, Bronx, New York
  • Wayne Avenue, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania
  • Wayne Avenue, Collingdale, Pennsylvania
  • Wayne Avenue, Chicago, Illinois[9]
  • Wayne Avenue, Dayton, Ohio
  • Wayne Avenue (Rte 112), Stony Point, New York
  • Wayne Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Wayne Street, Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • Wayne Street, Toledo, Ohio
  • Wayne Trace, Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • Mad River Road, in Hillsboro, Ohio
A.Wayne flag - Greenville 1795

This flag, presented to Miami chief She-Moc-E-Nish at the Treaty of Greenville, is signed "A.Wayne commander in chief".[10] It is currently owned by the State of Indiana[11]

TownshipsEdit

VillagesEdit

Popular cultureEdit

Wayne's legacy has extended to American popular culture in a number of ways.

In literature and publicationsEdit

  • Wayne is mentioned in Donald Barthelme's novel, The King.
  • Contrary to the popular belief that Bruce Wayne (the real name of the superhero character Batman) was named after John Wayne, comic book writer Bill Finger named Batman's alter ego after Robert the Bruce and Anthony Wayne. In the DC Comics, Bruce Wayne is depicted as General Wayne's direct descendant. Furthermore, the property on which Wayne Manor is built was given to General Wayne for his service during the Revolution. Rumours that Bruce's middle name is "Anthony" have yet to be confirmed by DC Comics.
  • In F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night (1934), Dick Diver mentions his descent from Mad Anthony Wayne.
  • Anthony Wayne is one of the main characters in Ann Rinaldi's historical novel, A Ride into Morning.
  • In J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye (1951), Mr. Spencer, one of the teachers at (fictitious) Pencey Prep School, lives across the street from campus on Anthony Wayne Avenue.

In productsEdit

  • Mad Anthony Ale (Mad Anthony's APA), an American Pale Ale (APA) brewed by the Erie Brewing Company in Erie, Pennsylvania

OnscreenEdit

  • Actor Marion Michael Morrison was initially given the stage name of Anthony Wayne, after the general, by Raoul Walsh, who directed The Big Trail (1930), but Fox Studios changed it to John Wayne instead, saying "Anthony" sounded "too Italian". John Wayne was leading man in 142 of his 153 movies, more than any other actor in history.[citation needed]
  • In "Guy Walks Into a Psychiatrist's Office...", the Season Two premiere of The Sopranos, the character Dr. Jennifer Melfi is shown seeing patients at the "Anthony Wayne Motel" in Wayne, New Jersey, while on the lam, in fear for her life.
  • The 1971 made-for-TV movie Assault on the Wayne, starring Leonard Nimoy, takes place on board the submarine U.S.S Anthony Wayne.
  • In Boardwalk Empire, S3E09, antagonist Gyp Rosetti admires a glass encased colonial hat from, as he says, "Mad Anthony Wayne". Rosetti later steals this hat at the end of the episode and wears it as he watches over his illegal alcohol business.

In sculptureEdit

EWagnerAWayne1

Wayne County Building pediment

In transportationEdit

Steamship General Anthony Wayne

The Anthony Wayne side-wheel passenger and cargo steamship.

  • The Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne, a side-wheel steamboat, sank in April 1850 in Lake Erie while en route from the Toledo, Ohio, area to Buffalo, New York. Out of 93 passengers and crew on board, 38 died. On June 21, 2007, it was announced that the wreck had been discovered by Thomas Kowalczk, an amateur shipwreck hunter.[12]
  • Major General Anthony Wayne, U.S. Army tugboat based at Southampton, UK.

Other usesEdit

  • The Mad Ants basketball team represents Ft. Wayne, Indiana, in the NBA Development League.[13]
  • In 1987, artist Mark Cline lobbied the Waynesboro, Virginia, city council to erect a 60 ft (18 m) bust of "Mad" Anthony Wayne atop the city's capped landfill.[14]

NotesEdit

  1. Anthony and Mary (Penrose) Wayne Family Bible http://genealogycenter.info/bibles/viewbiblepage_wayneanthony.php?p=10
  2. Boatner, 119-120
  3. United States Congressional Elections, 1788–1997: The Official Results confirms the seat was declared vacant on March 21, 1792.
  4. Carter, 133
  5. Hugh T. Harrington and Lisa A. Ennis. "Mad" Anthony Wayne: His Body Did Not Rest in Peace. http://www.americanrevolution.org/wayne.html, citing History of Erie County, Pennsylvania, vol. 1. pp. 211–2. Warner, Beers & Co., Chicago. 1884.
  6. Wood, Maureen & Kolek, Ron (2010). A Ghost a Day: 365 True Tales of the Spectral, Supernatural, and Just Plain Scary!, p. 1. Adams Media.
  7. "The History of AWS". AWS. http://www.awsusa.com/about/history.asp. Retrieved September 8, 2012. 
  8. "History". Anthony Wayne Local Schools. http://anthonywayneschools.org/history. Retrieved September 8, 2012. 
  9. "Chicago Streets". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110725165215/http://www.chsmedia.org/househistory/nameChanges/start.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  10. Furlong, William Rea; McCandless, Byron (1981). So Proudly We Hail : The History of the United States Flag. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-87474-448-2. 
  11. Anthony Wayne Flag (Greenville Treaty Flag)
  12. Lafferty, Mike (2007-06-21). "Lake Erie searchers locate 157-year-old shipwreck". Columbus Dispatch. http://www.dispatch.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2007/06/21/wreck.ART_ART_06-21-07_A1_3072T13.html. Retrieved 2008-04-29. 
  13. Fort Wayne in the NBA Development League
  14. Gonzalez, Tony (2009-04-01). "Epic Return". The News Virginian.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
politician
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 1st congressional district

March 4, 1791– March 21, 1792
Succeeded by
John Milledge
Military offices
Preceded by
Arthur St. Clair
Senior Officer of the United States Army
1792–1796
Succeeded by
James Wilkinson


This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).