The Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latinic: Oružane snage Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBIH; Serbian Cyrillic: Оружане снаге Босне и Херцеговине, ОСБИХ) is the official military force of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian Armed forces were unified in 2005 and are composed of two founding armies: the Bosniak-Croat Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Army of Republika Srpska.
The Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina, founded in 2004, is in charge of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are approximately 15,250 active and professional troops, 5,000 reserve troops and 1,000 civilian staff.
Chain of commandEdit
The supreme commander of the Bosnian Armed Forces is the president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Therefore, the Presidency commands the Bosnian Army, then the Bosnian Ministry of Defence with the minister Selmo Cikotić, then the Chiefs of Joint Staff with Sifet Podžić as the head. The BiH Chief of Joint Staff is Lieutenant General Miladin Milojčić. Conscription was completely abolished in Bosnia and Herzegovina effective on and from 1 January 2006.
The Bosnia and Herzegovina Defence Law addresses the following areas: the Military of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Government Institutions, Entity Jurisdictions and Structure, Budget and Financing, Composition of Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, War Declaration, natural disasters, conflict of interests and professionalism, Oath to Bosnia-Herzegovina, flags, anthem and military insignia, and transitional and end orders.
The AFBiH was formed from three armies of the Bosnian War period: the Bosnian (dominantly Bosniak with numbers of Serbs and Croats) Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Bosnian Serb Army of Republika Srpska, and the Croat Defence Council.
The Army of the Republic of Bosnia And Herzegovina was created on 15 April 1992 during the early days of the Bosnian War. Before the ARBiH was formally created, there existed Territorial Defence, an official military force of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and a number of paramilitary groups such as the Green Berets, Patriotic League, and civil defense groups, as well as many criminal gangs and collections of police and military professionals. The army was formed under poor circumstances, with a very low number of tanks, APCs and no military aviation assets. The army was divided into Corps, each Corp was stationed in a territory. The first commander was Sefer Halilović.
The Army of Republika Srpska was created on 12 May 1992. Before the VRS was formally created, there were a number of paramilitary groups such as the Srpska Dobrovoljačka Garda, Beli Orlovi, as well as some Russian, Greek and other volunteers. The army was equipped with ex-JNA inventory. It had about 200 tanks, mostly T-55s and 85 M-84s, and 150 APCs with several heavy artillery pieces. The Air Defense of VRS has shot down several aircraft, like F-16, Mirage 2000, F-18 and one Croatian Air Force MiG-21. The VRS received support from the Yugoslav Army and FRY until 1994, when Slobodan Milošević stopped military relations with Republika Srpska.
The Croatian Defence Council was the main military formation of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia during the Bosnian War. It was first organized military force to with the aim to control the Croat populated areas, created on 8 April 1992. They ranged from men armed with shotguns assigned to village defense tasks to organized, uniformed, and well-equipped brigade-sized formations that nevertheless employed part-time soldiers. As time went on, the HVO forces became increasingly better organized and more "professional", but it was not until early 1994, that the HVO began to form the so-called guards brigades, mobile units manned by full-time professional soldiers.
In 1995–96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia and Herzegovina, beginning on December 21, 1995 to implement and monitor the military aspects of the Dayton Peace Agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force or SFOR. The number of SFOR troops was reduced first to 12,000 and then to 7,000. SFOR was in turn succeeded by an even smaller, European Union-led European Union Force, EUFOR Althea. As of 2004, EUFOR Althea numbered around 7,000 troops.
As the joint AFBiH began to develop, troops began to be sent abroad. Bosnia and Herzegovina deployed a unit of 37 men to destroy munitions and clear mines, in addition to 6 command personnel as part of the Multinational force in Iraq. The unit was first deployed to Fallujah, then Talil Air Base, and is now located at Camp Echo. In December 2006, the Bosnian government formerly extended its mandate through June 2007. Bosnia and Herzegovina is planning to send another 49 soldiers from the 6th Infantry Division to Iraq in August 2008, their mission will be to protect/guard Camp Victory in Baghdad.
The Military units are commanded by the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina Joint Staff in Sarajevo. There are two major commands under the Joint Staff: Operational Command and Support Command.
There are three regiments that are each formed by soldiers from the three ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs and trace their roots to the armies that were created during the Bosnian war. These regiments have their distinct ethnic insignias and consist of three active battalions each. Headquarters of Regiments have no operational authority. On the basis of the Law on Service in the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the regimental headquarters have the following tasks: to manage the regimental museum, monitor financial fund Regiment, prepare, investigate and cherish the history of the regiment, the regiment publish newsletters, maintain cultural and historical heritage, give guidance on holding special ceremonies, give guidance on customs, dress and deportment Regiment, conduct officer, NCO and military clubs. Each regiments three battalions divided evenly between the three active brigades of the Army.
- Operational Command (Sarajevo)
- 4th Infantry Brigade (Tuzla)
- 5th Infantry Brigade (Banja Luka)
- (Serbian) Infantry Battalion (Banja Luka)
- (Croatian) Infantry Battalion (Livno)
- (Bosniak) Infantry Battalion (Bihać)
- Reconnaissance Company
- Signals Platoon
- Tactical Support Brigade (Sarajevo)
- Armored Battalion (Tuzla)
- Artillery Battalion (Žepče) (one battery detached to each brigade)
- Engineer Battalion (one company detached to each brigade)
- Military Intelligence Battalion (Butilama)
- Military Police Battalion (Butilama) (one platoon detached to each brigade)
- De-mining Battalion (Bugojno)
- Signals Company (Sarajevo)
- NBC Defense Company
- Air Force & Anti-Air Defense Brigade (Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzla)
- Helicopter Battalion (Sarajevo) (one squadron detached to each brigade HQ)
- Air Defense Battalion (Sarajevo) (one company detached to each brigade)
- Early Warning & Surveillance Battalion (Banja Luka)
- Flight Support Battalion (Sarajevo, Banja Luka)
- Tactical Support Brigade (Sarajevo)
- Support Command (Banja Luka)
- Personnel Command
- Training and Doctrine Command
- Combat Training Center
- Armored Mechanized Battalion
- Combat Simulation Center
- Professional Development Center
- Officers School
- NCO School
- Foreign Language Center
- Combat Training Center
- Logistics Command
- Center for Movement Control
- Center for Material Management
- Main Logistics Base (Doboj and Sarajevo)
- 1st Logistics Support Battalion
- 2nd Logistics Support Battalion
- 3rd Logistics Support Battalion
- 4th Logistics Support Battalion
- 5th Logistics Support Battalion
Within the armed forces, there are a number of services. These include a Technical service, Air technology service, Military Police service, Communications service, Sanitary service, a Veterans service, Civilian service, Financial service, Information service, Legal service, Religious service, and a Musical service.
Uniform and InsigniaEdit
Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were unified in 2005 and at that time they needed a uniform for the newly founded army. MARPAT was designated as the future uniform of AFBIH.
Insignia is found on military hats or berets, on the right and left shoulder on the uniform of all Soldiers of the Armed Forces. All, except for generals, wear badges on their hats or berets with either the land force badge or air force badge. Generals wear badges with the coat of arms of Bosnia surrounded with branches and two swords.All soldiers of the armed forces have on their right shoulder a flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina. All members of the 3 regiments wear their regiment insignia on the left shoulder. There are other insignias, brigades or other institution are worn under the regiment insignia. The name of the soldiers is worn on the left part of the chest while the name "Armed Forces of BiH" is worn on the right part of the chest.
The armed forces' equipment includes:
|M-84||Yugoslavia||Main Battle Tank||71|
|AMX-30B||France||Main Battle Tank||36||Bought in 1996|
|M60A3||United States||Main Battle Tank||45||1996, US "Train and Equip Program" aid|
| T-55 |
|Soviet Union||Main Battle Tank||157||Of which 15 second handed from Egypt|
|T-34||Soviet Union||Main Battle Tank||5|
|Type 92||China||Tank Destroyer||10|
|AML 60/90||France||Armoured Car||41||Aid from UAE|
|AMX-10P||France||Infantry Fighting Vehicle||25||Aid from Qatar|
|BVP M-80A||Yugoslavia||Infantry Fighting Vehicle||128|
|M113||United States||Armoured Personnel Carrier||80||Aid from USA|
| OT M-60 |
|Yugoslavia||Armoured Personnel Carrier|| 29 |
| BOV 3 |
|Yugoslavia||Armoured Personnel Carrier|| 3 |
|BTR-50PK||Soviet Union||Armoured Personnel Carrier||2|
|BTR-70||Soviet Union||Armoured Personnel Carrier||3|
| D-30 |
| Soviet Union |
|Howitzer||258||Of which 12 second handed from Egypt|
| D-20 |
| Soviet Union |
|Howitzer|| 13 |
|Of which 12 second handed from Egypt|
| M-46 |
| Soviet Union |
|Howitzer|| 61 |
|Of which 12 from Egypt, and 8 from Romania|
| M-56 |
| Bosnia and Herzegovina |
|Howitzer|| 101 |
|Of which 36 second handed from UAE|
| M114A1 |
|United States||Howitzer||126||1997, US "Train and Equip Program" aid|
|Self-Propelled Artillery & MRLS|
|2S1 Gvozdika||Soviet Union||Self-propelled howitzer||24|
|Type 63 multiple rocket launcher||Multiple Rocket Launcher|
|BM-21 Grad||Multiple rocket launcher||BM-21 Grad, APR-40||5 BM-21 and 36 APR-40||Source:http://www2.webng.com/security/osbih4.html|
|M-63 Plamen||Multiple rocket launcher||Plamen||27|
|M-77 Oganj||Multiple rocket launcher||Oganj||34||http://www.unisgroup.ba/#/mlrs/|
|M-87 Orkan||Multiple rocket launcher||Orkan||5||4 Non Operational|
|Mil Mi-8/Mil Mi-17||Transport helicopter|| Mi-8T |
|Bell UH-1 Iroquois||Utility helicopter||UH-1H||5||Supported by heavy machine guns on the left and right corner.|
|Soko Gazelle||Utility helicopter||SA 342||6|
- ↑ CIA – The World Factbook – Bosnia and Herzegovina
- ↑ NATO and the Defence Reform Commission: partners for progress (SETimes.com)
- ↑ As per http://www.mod.gov.ba/en/shema.asp?id=odb
- ↑ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 "Bosnia Herzegovina Land Forces military equipment , armament and vehicles Army". armyrecognition.com. http://www.armyrecognition.com/bosnia_herzegovina_army_land_ground_forces_uk/bosnia_herzegovina_army_land_ground_armed_defense_forces_military_equipment_armored_vehicle_uk.html. Retrieved 2013-09-27.
- ↑ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 SIPRI Arms Transfers Database
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Ioannis Michaletos (2012). "DEFENSE BALANCE IN WESTERN BALKANS". Rieas.gr. http://rieas.gr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=80&Itemid=42. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
- ↑ =Order of Battle – Bosnia and Herzegovina. milaviapress.com
- Jim Dorschner, 'Endgame in Bosnia,' Jane's Defence Weekly, 18 April 2007, p. 24–29
- Ministry of Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- MILITARY INDUSTRY – Bosnia and Herzegovina
- European Union Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina – EUFOR (English)
- OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina (English)
- NATO Headquarters Sarajevo Security Sector Reform information
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