The Battle of Restigouche was a naval battle fought during the French and Indian War on the Restigouche River between the British Royal Navy and the small flotilla of French Navy vessels. The French vessels had been sent to relieve New France after the fall of Quebec. Supplies were extraordinarily important because France ran their colonies such that the colonies were wholly dependent on products and manufacturing of the motherland. The loss of the Battle of Restigouche and the consequent inability to supply the troops, marked the end of any serious attempt by France to keep hold of their colonies in North America, and it severely curtailed any hopes for a lengthy resistance to the British by the French forces that remained.
Quebec had fallen to the British in September 1759, but French forces still remained in New France in large numbers. Several appeals to the French government for reinforcements met with indifference or neglect, partly because the French navy had been smashed at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in November 1759. On April 10, 1760, the frigate Le Machault under Lieutenant Francois La Giraudais sailed from Bordeaux with 5 merchant ships carrying 2,000 casks of provisions and 400 troops. Francois-Gabriel D'Angeac commanded reinforcement troops because of his familiarity with the area.
Things did not go well for the flotilla on the outward journey. On April 11, they were forced to disperse in order to run the British blockade off France. Two merchant vessels were seized, and two weeks later another ran aground in the Azores. The three remaining vessels rendezvoused in the Gulf of St. Lawrence on May 15, only to find that a British fleet had already arrived in Quebec. Seeking a safe harbour, they sailed for Chaleur Bay and anchored in the estuary of the Restigouche River near the Mi'kmaq settlement of Listuguj on May 18. Here they enlisted the help of the locals and some Acadien refugees in exchange for feeding and arming them.
In the meantime, a force of Royal Navy ships under Captain John Byron sailed from Louisbourg to intercept the French flotilla. They arrived in Chaleur Bay on June 22, blockading any attempt by La Giraudais to escape. He responded by sailing further upriver where the deeper draft British ships would have difficulty following. There he turned Le Machault broadside, scuttled some schooners as a barrier and placed a battery of cannon ashore to strengthen his position.
Despite La Giraudais' positioning, Byron was able to negotiate the shallower waters and on July 3, confronted the French defensive line. At close range and in calm winds, the battle commenced. Despite being outgunned, the French inflicted heavy damage on the British before Byron succeeded in silencing the shore batteries. Le Machault and the merchant ships Bienfaisant and Marquis-de-Malauze then withdrew further upriver with the British in pursuit. For the next several days the two forces engaged in a running battle, but La Giraudais recognized that he could not win a battle of attrition and on July 8 he had Le Machault and Bienfaisant scuttled to prevent the capture of their cargo (the Marquis-de-Malauze was spared due to the prisoners that it contained in its hold). The remaining French force then withdrew to the shore and the safety of Listuguj while Byron returned to Louisbourg.
The loss of important provisions hastened the fall of New France. Without outside support and surrounded by three separate British forces, Montreal fell on September 8. La Giraudais finally surrendered on October 29, six days after hearing the news of the capitulation. Byron later commanded the British fleet that was defeated at the Battle of Grenada in 1779, as well as becoming Governor of Newfoundland.
Today, the site of the battle is a National Historic Site of Canada known as Battle of the Restigouche National Historic Site. An interpretive centre located in Pointe-à-la-Croix, Quebec features artifacts recovered from the site, displays and a film about the battle, and a 1:32 scale model of the 18th century frigate The Machault. In the summer, costumed interpreters portray the Acadians, Micmaq, sailors and French soldiers who participated in the 1760 battle.