The British Armed Forces[nb 3] form the military of the United Kingdom, tasked with defence of the country, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies; as well as promoting the UK's wider interests, supporting international peacekeeping efforts, and providing humanitarian aid. They consist of the Royal Navy, a blue-water navy with a fleet of 77 commissioned ships, the Royal Marines, a highly specialised amphibious light infantry force, the British Army, the UK's principle land warfare branch, and the Royal Air Force, a technologically sophisticated air force with a diverse operational fleet consisting of both fixed-wing and rotary aircraft.
The Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces is the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, to whom members of the forces swear allegiance. However the British parliament maintains the armed forces during times of peace with the passing of quinquennial armed forces acts. The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence, headed by the Secretary of State for Defence.
The UK is an active and regular participant in NATO and other coalition operations. The country is also party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements. Recent operations have included wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the 2000 intervention in Sierra Leone, peacekeeping responsibilities in the Balkans and Cyprus, and participation in the UN-mandated no-fly zone over Libya. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained at Ascension Island, Belize, Brunei, Canada, Diego Garcia, the Falkland Islands, Germany, Gibraltar, Kenya, Qatar and Cyprus.
The United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon under Operation Hurricane in 1952, becoming the third nation in the world to achieve the status of a nuclear power. As of 2015[update], Britain remains one of five recognised nuclear powers, with a total of 225 nuclear warheads. Of those, no more than 160 are deployed and active. Its nuclear deterrence system is based on Trident missiles on board ballistic missile submarines.
Upon the Act of Union in 1707, the armed forces of England and Scotland were merged into the armed forces of the Kingdom of Great Britain. By 1815, with the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo Britain had risen to become the world's dominant superpower, and the British Empire subsequently presided over a period of relative peace, known as Pax Britannica, until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Between 1707 and 1914, British forces played a prominent role in notable conflicts including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars and the Crimean War.
The current structure of defence management in Britain was set in place in 1964 when the modern day Ministry of Defence (MoD) was created (an earlier form had existed since 1940). The MoD assumed the roles of the Admiralty, the War Office and the Air Ministry.
Post–World War II economic and political decline, as well as changing attitudes in British society and government, were reflected by the Armed Forces' contracting global role. Britain's protracted decline was dramatically epitomised by its political defeat during the Suez War of 1956. The 1957 Defence White Paper abolished conscription and reduced the size of the Armed Forces from 690,000 to 375,000 by 1962. Seeking an inexpensive alternative to maintaining a large conventional military, the government pursued a doctrine of nuclear deterrence. This initially consisted of free-fall bombs operated by the RAF, but these were eventually superseded by the submarine-launched Polaris ballistic missile. While assurances had been made to the United States that Britain would maintain a presence "East of Suez", a process of gradual withdrawal from its eastern commitments was undertaken in the 1960s, primarily for economic reasons. By the mid-1970s, Britain had withdrawn permanently deployed forces from Aden, Bahrain, Malaysia, Mauritius, Oman, Sharjah, and Singapore. Agreements with Malta (expired 1979) and South Africa (terminated 1975) also ended.
With a permanent presence east of Suez effectively reduced to Hong Kong (up to 1997) and Brunei, the Armed Forces reconfigured to focus on the responsibilities allocated to the services during the Cold War. Substantial forces thus became committed to NATO in Europe and elsewhere; by 1985, 72,929 personnel were stationed in Continental Europe. The British Army of the Rhine and RAF Germany consequently represented the largest and most important overseas commitments that the British Armed Forces had during this period. The Royal Navy's fleet developed an anti-submarine warfare specialisation, with a particular focus on countering Soviet submarines in the Eastern Atlantic and North Sea. In the process of this transition and due to economic constraints, four conventional aircraft carriers and two "commando" carriers were decommissioned between 1967 and 1984. With the cancellation of the CVA-01 project, three Invincible-class STOVL aircraft carriers, originally designed as "Through-Deck Cruisers", became their ultimate replacements.
While this focus on NATO obligations increased in prominence during the 1970s, low-intensity conflicts in Northern Ireland and Oman emerged as the primary operational concerns of the British Armed Forces. These conflicts had followed a spate of insurgencies against British colonial occupation in Aden, Cyprus, Kenya and Malaysia. An undeclared war with Indonesia had also occurred in Borneo during the 1960s, and recurring civil unrest in the declining number of British colonies often required military assistance.
Four major reviews of the British Armed Forces have been conducted since the end of the Cold War. All three services experienced considerable reductions in manpower, equipment, and infrastructure during this period while re-structuring to deliver a greater focus on expeditionary warfare.
The Conservative government produced the Options for Change review in the 1990s, seeking to benefit from a perceived post–Cold War "peace dividend". Though the Soviet Union had disintegrated, a presence in Germany was retained in the reduced form of British Forces Germany. Experiences during the First Gulf War prompted renewed efforts to enhance joint operational cohesion and efficiency among the services by establishing a Permanent Joint Headquarters in 1996.
An increasingly international role for the British Armed Forces was pursued since the Cold War's end. This entailed the Armed Forces often constituting a major component in peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the United Nations or NATO, and other multinational operations. Consistent under-manning and the reduced size of the Armed Forces highlighted the problem of "overstretch" during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. This reportedly contributed to personnel retention difficulties and challenged the military's ability to sustain its overseas commitments.
A Strategic Defence Review (SDR)—described as "foreign-policy-led"—was published in 1998. Expeditionary warfare and tri-service integration were central to the review, which sought to improve efficiency and reduce expenditure by consolidating resources. Most of the Armed Forces' helicopters were collected under a single command and a Joint Force Harrier was established in 2000, containing the Navy and RAF's fleet of Harrier Jump Jets. A Joint Rapid Reaction Force was formed in 1999, with significant tri-service resources at its disposal.
The first major post-11 September restructuring was announced in the 2004 Delivering Security in a Changing World: Future Capabilities review, continuing a vision of "mobility" and "expeditionary warfare" articulated in the SDR. Future equipment projects reflecting this direction featured in the review, including the procurement of two large aircraft carriers and a series of medium-sized vehicles for the Army. Reductions in manpower, equipment, and infrastructure were also announced. The decision to reduce the Army's regular infantry to 36 battalions (from 40) and amalgamate the remaining single-battalion regiments was controversial, especially in Scotland and among former soldiers. Envisaging a rebalanced composition of more rapidly deployable light and medium forces, the review announced that a regiment of Challenger 2 main battle tanks and a regiment of AS-90 self-propelled artillery would be converted to lighter roles.
There were more than 30,000 members of the British Armed Forces deployed abroad in January 2007, serving in various capacities. Peacekeeping, humanitarian aid, and disaster relief tasks increased in the 2000s, many under the auspices of the United Nations and NATO. The Armed Forces contributed to the international humanitarian and reconstruction efforts in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami and 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.
Within the United Kingdom, there were approximately 140,000 personnel stationed in England, 13,200 in Scotland, 7,000 in Northern Ireland, and 6,200 in Wales. The conflict in Northern Ireland had required the Armed Forces to provide "Military aid to the civil power" from 1969, with a presence that peaked at over 20,000 regular personnel in 1972. Sectarian and paramilitary violence subsided after the Good Friday Agreement was signed in 1998. and the IRA declared an end to its campaign in 2005. Operational support for the Police Service of Northern Ireland, known as Operation Banner, officially ended on 1 August 2007, resulting in the reduction of the military presence to the size of a peacetime garrison.
As a result of the Strategic Defence and Security Review conducted in October 2010, Prime Minister David Cameron signed a 50-year treaty with French President Nicolas Sarkozy that would have the two countries cooperate intensively in military matters.
The British Armed Forces is a professional force with a strength in September 2014 of 162,550 Regular and 28,860 Volunteer Reserve personnel. This gives a total strength of 191,410 Service Personnel. In addition, all ex-Regular personnel retain a "statutory liability for service" and are liable to be recalled (under Section 52 of the Reserve Forces Act (RFA) 1996) for duty in a time of need, this is known as the Regular Reserve. However, MoD publications since April 2013 no longer report the entire strength of the Regular Reserve, instead they only give a figure for Regular Reserves who serve under a fixed-term reserve contract. These contracts are similar in nature to those of the Volunteer Reserve. As of 2014, regular Reserves serving under a fixed-term contract numbered 45,110 personnel. All personnel figures exclude the Military Provost Guard Service and the University Training Units; the University Royal Naval Unit, the Officers' Training Corps and the University Air Squadron.
Britain has the fifth or sixth-largest defence budget in the world, with the country spending more than countries like Germany or Japan but more or less comparable to that of France or Saudi Arabia. In September 2011, according to the Royal United Services Institute, current "planned levels of defence spending should be enough for the United Kingdom to maintain its position as one of the world's top military powers, as well as being one of NATO-Europe's top military powers. Its edge – not least its qualitative edge – in relation to rising Asian powers seems set to erode, but will remain significant well into the 2020’s, and possibly beyond."
In the 2013 Spending Review, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, reinforced the government's commitment to the 2010 SDSR and stated the £38bn "black hole" in the defence budget had been filled, that at over 2% of GDP, the defence budget will remain one of the largest in the world, the equipment budget will grow by 1% in real terms every year after 2015, that there will be further reductions in the civilian MoD workforce, PFI contracts signed in the last decade would be renegotiated, the way equipment is purchased is to be overhauled, and a greater commitment to cyber warfare.
As Sovereign and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II is Head of the Armed Forces and their Commander-in-Chief. Long-standing constitutional convention, however, has vested de facto executive authority, by the exercise of Royal Prerogative powers, in the Prime Minister and the Secretary of State for Defence, and the Prime Minister (acting with the support of the ) makes the key decisions on the use of the armed forces. The Queen, however, remains the "ultimate authority" of the military, with officers and personnel swearing allegiance to the monarch. It has been claimed that this includes the power to prevent unconstitutional use of the armed forces, including its nuclear weapons.
The Ministry of Defence is the Government department and highest level of military headquarters charged with formulating and executing defence policy for the Armed Forces; it currently employs over 60,000 civilians as of 2014. This number will be reduced to just 55,000 by 2015 (a reduction of 25,000 as per the October 2010 SDSR) and then again to 48,000 by 2020. The department is controlled by the Secretary of State for Defence and contains three deputy appointments: Minister of State for the Armed Forces, Minister for Defence Procurement, and Minister for Veterans' Affairs.
Responsibility for the management of the forces is delegated to a number of committees: the Defence Council, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Defence Management Board and three single-service boards. The Defence Council, composed of senior representatives of the services and the Ministry of Defence, provides the "formal legal basis for the conduct of defence". The three constituent single-service committees (Admiralty Board, Army Board and Air Force Board) are chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence.
The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the Armed Forces and is an appointment that can be held by an Admiral, Air Chief Marshal or General. Before the practice was discontinued in the 1990s, those who were appointed to the position of CDS had been elevated to the most senior rank in their respective service (a 5-star rank). The CDS, along with the Permanent Under Secretary, are the principal advisers to the departmental minister. The three services have their own respective professional chiefs: the First Sea Lord, the Chief of the General Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff.
Personnel are based in a number of overseas territories, though internal security for the majority is provided solely by small police forces. Garrisons and facilities exist in Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, and the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus. These deployments accounted for over 5,000 personnel in 2006. Locally-raised units are maintained in Bermuda (The Bermuda Regiment), the Falkland Islands (Falkland Islands Defence Force), and Gibraltar (Royal Gibraltar Regiment). Though their primary mission is "home defence", individuals have volunteered for operational duties. The Royal Gibraltar Regiment has recently mobilised section-sized units for attachment to regiments deployed to Iraq.
Weapons of mass destructionEdit
The United Kingdom is one of only five recognised nuclear weapon states under the Non-Proliferation Treaty and maintains an independent nuclear deterrent, currently consisting of four Vanguard-class ballistic missile submarines. This is known as the UK Trident programme and delivers a 'continuous at sea deterrent' capability. Nomenclature of the UK deterrent is after the UGM-133 Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missile that is used to deliver the nuclear warheads. Estimates of the United Kingdoms nuclear stockpile put it at approximately 225 nuclear warheads in total, with 160 of those being active.
A successor programme is currently in its early stages with a final decision to be made in 2016 after the 2015 general election. It primarily seeks to replace the Vangaurd-class submarines with a new generation of SSBNs, however, the programme will also extend the life of the UGM-133 Trident II ballistic missiles, refurbish the nuclear warheads and modernise existing infrastructure associated with the deterrent.
UK Joint Expeditionary ForceEdit
The UK Joint Expeditionary Force, not to be confused with the similarly named UK-French Combined Joint Expeditionary Force, was announced in December 2012 by the Chief of the Defence Staff, General Sir David Richards. It is designed to be an integrated joint force, with capabilities across the spectrum at sea, on land and in the air, with the aspiration being greater levels of integration than previously achieved especially when combined with other nations' armed forces. Of variable size, it is intended to be the basis of all the UK armed forces' combined joint training; a framework into which other nations will fit. It will be the core of the UK's contribution to any military action, whether NATO, coalition or independent. Together with Command and Control elements including HQ Allied Rapid Reaction Corps and the maritime component HQ at Northwood, the force is designed to meet the UK's obligations to NATO.
The Royal Navy is a technologically sophisticated naval force, consisting of 77 commissioned ships and around 150 aircraft. Command of deployable assets is exercised by the Fleet Commander of the Naval Service. Personnel matters are the responsibility of the Second Sea Lord/Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command, an appointment usually held by a vice-admiral.
The Surface Fleet consists of helicopter carriers, destroyers, frigates, amphibious assault ships, patrol ships, mine-countermeasures, and miscellaneous vessels. The Surface Fleet has been structured around a single fleet since the abolition of the Eastern and Western fleets in 1971. The recently built Type 45 destroyers are technologically advanced air-defence destroyers. The Royal Navy is building two Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers, embarking an air-group including the advanced fifth-generation multi-role fighter, the F-35B.
A submarine service has existed within the Royal Navy for more than 100 years. The Submarine Service's four Vanguard-class nuclear-powered submarines carry Lockheed Martin's Trident II ballistic missiles, forming the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent. The service possessed a combined fleet of diesel-electric and nuclear-powered submarines until the early 1990s. Following the Options for Change defence review, the Upholder class diesel-electric submarines were withdrawn and the attack submarine flotilla is now exclusively nuclear-powered. Seven Astute class nuclear-powered attack submarines have been ordered, with two completed, and four under construction. The Astute class are the most advanced and largest fleet submarines ever built for the Royal Navy, and will maintain Britain's nuclear-powered submarine fleet capabilities for decades to come.
The Royal Marines are the Royal Navy's amphibious troops. Consisting of a single manoeuvre brigade (3 Commando) and various independent units, the Royal Marines specialise in amphibious, arctic, and mountain warfare. Contained within 3 Commando Brigade are three attached army units; 1st Battalion, The Rifles, an infantry battalion based at Beachley Barracks near Chepstow (from April 2008), 29 Commando Regiment Royal Artillery, an artillery regiment based in Plymouth, and 24 Commando Regiment Royal Engineers. The Commando Logistic Regiment consists of personnel from the Army, Royal Marines, and Royal Navy.
The British Army is made up of the Regular Army and the Army Reserve. The army has a single command structure based at Andover and known as "Army Headquarters". Deployable combat formations consist of two divisions (1st Armoured and 3rd Mechanised) and eight brigades. Within the United Kingdom, operational and non-deployable units are administered by three regionally-defined "regenerative" divisions (2nd, 4th, and 5th) and London District.
The Army has 50 battalions (36 regular and 14 territorial) of regular and territorial infantry, organised into 17 regiments. The majority of infantry regiments contains multiple regular and territorial battalions. Modern infantry have diverse capabilities and this is reflected in the varied roles assigned to them. There are four operational roles that infantry battalions can fulfil: air assault, armoured infantry, mechanised infantry, and light role infantry.
Regiments and battalions e.g.: the Parachute Regiment, exist within every corps of the Army, functioning as administrative or tactical formations. Armoured regiments are equivalent to an infantry battalion. There are 11 armoured regiments within the regular army, of which six are designated as "Armoured" and five as "Formation Reconnaissance". With the exception of the Household Cavalry, armoured regiments and their Territorial counterparts are grouped under the Royal Armoured Corps. Arms and support units are also formed into similar collectives organised around specific purposes, such as the Corps of Royal Engineers, Army Air Corps and Royal Army Medical Corps.
Royal Air ForceEdit
The Royal Air Force has a large operational fleet that fulfils various roles, consisting of both fixed-wing and rotary aircraft. Frontline aircraft are controlled by Air Command, which is organised into three groups defined by function: 1 Group (Air Combat), 2 Group (Air Support) and 22 Group (training aircraft and ground facilities). In addition 83 Expeditionary Air Group directs formations in the Middle East. Deployable formations consist of Expeditionary Air Wings and squadrons—the basic unit of the Air Force. Independent flights are deployed to facilities in Afghanistan, the Falkland Islands, Iraq, and the United States.
The Royal Air Forces operates multi-role and single-role fighters, reconnaissance and patrol aircraft, tankers, transports, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, and various types of training aircraft. Ground units are also maintained by the Royal Air Force, most prominently the RAF Police and the Royal Air Force Regiment (RAF Regt). The Royal Air Force Regiment essentially functions as the local ground defence force of the RAF. Roled principally as ground defence for RAF facilities, the regiment contains nine regular squadrons, supported by five squadrons of the Royal Auxiliary Air Force Regiment. By March 2008, the three remaining "Air Defence" squadrons had disbanded or re-roled and their responsibilities transferred to the British Army's Royal Artillery.
Civilian agencies of the Ministry of DefenceEdit
The British Armed Forces are supported by civilian agencies owned by the MoD. Although they are civilian, they play a vital role in supporting Armed Forces operations, and in certain circumstances are under military discipline.
Royal Fleet AuxiliaryEdit
The 13 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) primarily serve to replenish Royal Navy warships at sea, and also augment the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship dock vessels. It is manned by 1,850 civilian personnel and is funded and run by the Ministry of Defence.
Ministry of Defence PoliceEdit
Defence Equipment and SupportEdit
- The Defence Equipment and Support (DE&S) is the merged procurement and support organisation within the UK Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). It came into being on 2 April 2007, bringing together the MoD's Defence Procurement Agency and the Defence Logistics Organisation under the leadership of General Sir Kevin O'Donoghue as the first Chief of Defence Materiel. As of 2015[update] it has a civilian and military workforce of approx. 20,000 personnel. DE&S is overseen by the Minister for Defence Equipment, Support and Technology.
UK Hydrographic OfficeEdit
- The UK Hydrographic Office (or UKHO) is an organisation within the UK government responsible for providing navigational and other hydrographic information for national, civil and defence requirements. The UKHO is located in Taunton, Somerset on Admiralty Way and has a workforce of approximately 1000 staff.
For more Information about Civilian Agencies of or within the MoD see Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom).
All three services of the British Armed Forces recruit primarily from within the United Kingdom, although citizens from the Commonwealth of Nations and the Republic of Ireland are equally eligible to join. The minimum recruitment age is 16 years (although personnel may not serve on armed operations below 18 years); the maximum recruitment age depends whether the application is for a regular or reserve role; there are further variations in age limit for different corps/regiments. The normal term of engagement is 22 years; however, the minimum service required before resignation is 4 years, plus, in the case of the Army, any service person below the age of 18. At present, the yearly intake into the armed forces is 11,880 (per the 12 months to 31 March 2014).
Excluding the Brigade of Gurkhas and the Royal Irish Regiment, as of 1 April 2014 there are approximately 11,200 Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) persons serving as Regulars across the three service branches - of those, 6,610 were recruited from outside the United Kingdom. In total, Black and Minority Ethnic persons represent 7.1% of all service personnel, an increase from 6.6% in 2010.
Women have been integrated into the British Armed Forces since the early 1990s; however, they remain excluded from primarily combat units in the Army, Royal Marines, and Royal Air Force Regiment. As of the 1 April 2014, there are approximately 15,840 women serving in the Armed Forces, representing 9.9% of all service personnel. The first female military pilot was Flight Lieutenant Julie Ann Gibson while Flight Lieutenants Jo Salter and Kirsty Moore were the first fast-jet pilots, the former flying a Tornado GR1 on missions patrolling the then Northern Iraqi No-Fly Zone. Flight Lieutenant Juliette Fleming and Squadron Leader Nikki Thomas recently were the first Tornado GR4 crew. While enforcing the Libyan No-Fly Zone, Flight Lieutenant Helen Seymour was identified as the first female Eurofighter Typhoon pilot. As of August 2011, it was announced that a female Lieutenant Commander, Sarah West, will command the frigate HMS Portland.
Since the year 2000, sexual orientation has not been a factor considered in recruitment, and homosexuals can serve openly in the armed forces. All branches of the forces have actively recruited at Gay Pride events. The forces keep no formal figures concerning the number of gay and lesbian serving soldiers, saying that the sexual orientation of personnel is considered irrelevant and not monitored.
- Banknotes of the British Armed Forces
- Common Security and Defence Policy
- Military of Scotland
- Military of the Falkland Islands
- The Lancaster House Treaties (2010)
- Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces
- Network-enabled capability - British military concept of achieving enhanced military effect through the better use of information systems. Similar to the US concept of Network-centric warfare
- Joint Rapid Reaction Force
- Sponsored Reserves
- ↑ The British Armed Forces are a purely professional force and as of September 2014 had a strength of 162,550 Regular and 28,860 Volunteer Reserve personnel. Figures exclude the Military Provost Guard Service and the University Training Units.
- ↑ Since April 2013, MoD publications no longer report the entire strength of the Regular Reserve, instead, only Regular Reserves serving under a fixed-term reserve contract are counted. These contracts are similar in nature to the Volunteer Reserve.
- ↑ Also referred to as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, the Armed Forces of the Crown, and the Armed Forces of the United Kingdom.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Parliament Speaker addresses Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, 20 March 2012
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 gov.uk MoD - regular personnel, table 2-page 8. 1 September 2014.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 gov.uk MoD – reserves and cadet strengths, table 1a-page 10. April 2014.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 gov.uk MoD - reserves and cadet strengths, table 4 page 13. See note 2. April 2014.
- ↑ HM Treasury 2014 Budget (19 March 2014) - see Chart 1 on page 5
- ↑ Exchange rate as of 23 March 2014
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 "The 15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2013 (table)" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. http://books.sipri.org/product_info?c_product_id=476. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- ↑ The Mission of the Armed Forces, armedforces.co.uk
- ↑ "Bill of Rights 1689". Wikisource. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Bill_of_Rights_1689. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
- ↑ Permanent Joint Operating Bases, northwood.mod.uk
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 House of Commons Hansard, publications.parliament.uk
- ↑ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p343
- ↑ Colman (2005), A 'Special Relationship'?: Harold Wilson, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Anglo-American Relations' at the Summit', 1964–68, p77
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Focus on Europe, raf.mod.uk
- ↑ Johnman & Gorst (1997), The Suez Crisis, p166
- ↑ Lider (1985), British Military Thought After World War II, p525
- ↑ Lee (1996), Aspects of British Political History 1914-1995, 273
- ↑ Pierre (1972), Nuclear Politics: the British experience with an independent strategic force: 1939-1970, p100
- ↑ Hack (2000), Defence and Decolonisation in South-East Asia: Britain, Malaya, Singapore, 1941-1968, p285
- ↑ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p345
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Kennedy (2004), British Naval Strategy East of Suez, 1900-2000: Influence and Actions, p193
- ↑ Focus on Europe, raf.mod.uk, p15-16
- ↑ dasa.mod.uk 1998 Publication Archived February 3, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p421
- ↑ Kennedy (2004), British Naval Strategy East of Suez, 1900-2000: Influence and Actions, p246
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Harding (2005), The Royal Navy 1930-2000: innovation and defence, p220
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Chandler & Beckett (2003), pp350-351
- ↑ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p358
- ↑ Hollowell (2003), Britain Since 1945, p16
- ↑ Strachan (2006), Big Wars And Small Wars: The British Army And the Lessons of War in the Twentieth Century, p158
- ↑ Frantzen (2005), Nato And Peace Support Operations, 1991–1999: Policies And Doctrines, p104
- ↑ Frantzen (2005), NATO and Peace Support Operations, 1991–1999: policies and doctrines, p95
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 Dorman (2005), Overstretch: Modern Army's weakness, news.bbc.co.uk
- ↑ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p434
- ↑ BBC (2007), Military 'faces retention crisis', news.bbc.co.uk
- ↑ Chandler & Beckett (2003), P418
- ↑ Kennedy, British Naval Strategy East of Suez, 1900-2000: Influence and Actions, p261
- ↑ Hansard (1998), House of Commons, publications.parliament.uk
- ↑ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p418
- ↑ Permanent Joint Headquarters, armedforces.co.uk
- ↑ BBC (2004), The armed forces of the future, news.bbc.co.uk
- ↑ 43.0 43.1 Delivering Security in a Changing World Future Capabilities[dead link], mod.uk
- ↑ BBC News (2004), Hoon confirms super-regiment plan, news.bbc.co.uk
- ↑ Future Army Structure[dead link], armedforces.co.uk
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 House of Commons Hansard[dead link], publications.parliament.uk
- ↑ Where are British troops and why?, news.bbc.co.uk
- ↑ Ministry of Defence Policy Paper No.2 - Multinational Defence Co-operation[dead link], mod.uk
- ↑ Operation Garron, operations.mod.uk
- ↑ Pakistan Earthquake Relief Operations: Chronology of Events, operations.mod.uk
- ↑ Numbers of UK armed forces committed to Northern Ireland[dead link], dasa.mod.uk
- ↑ Jackson, Ireland, 1798-1998: Politics and War, p.404
- ↑ BBC News, Good Friday Agreement, news.bbc.co.uk
- ↑ BBC News (2006), Troop withdrawal plan published, news.bbc.co.uk
- ↑ Wintour, Patrick (2 November 2010). "Britain and France sign landmark 50-year defence deal". The Guardian. London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/nov/02/britain-france-landmark-50-year-defence-deal.
- ↑ The Military Balance 2014: Top 15 Defence Budgets 2013 (IISS)
- ↑ RUSI Briefing Paper. Published September 2011  P. 18
- ↑ Spending Review 2013: Osborne on defence[dead link] 26 June 2013
- ↑ Queen and Armed Forces, royal.gov.uk.
- ↑ "Whose hand is on the button?". BBC. 2 December 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7758314.stm. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- ↑ http://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/RUSIBriefingPaperSept2011.pdf
- ↑ Hansard (1998), House of Commons Written Answers, publications.parliament.uk
- ↑ The Royal Gibraltar Regiment, 1rg.gi
- ↑ More soldiers from Royal Gibraltar Regiment in overseas duties in regiment's history, www.panorama.gi
- ↑ Royal Navy - Continuous at sea deterrent, royalnavy.mod.uk, Accessed 6 December 2014
- ↑ "The Future of the United Kingdom’s Nuclear Deterrent". Ministry of Defence. 4 December 2006. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/AC00DD79-76D6-4FE3-91A1-6A56B03C092F/0/DefenceWhitePaper2006_Cm6994.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-05.
- ↑ Speech Chief of the Defence Staff General Sir David Richards Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), 17 December 2012
- ↑ "Royal Navy". royalnavy.mod.uk. http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/. Retrieved October 2014.
- ↑ Fleet Command and Organisation, armedforces.co.uk
- ↑ [dead link]
- ↑ Hampshire (1975), The Royal Navy Since 1945: its transition to the nuclear age, p248
- ↑ "MoD confirms £3.8bn carrier order". BBC News. 25 July 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/6914788.stm. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- ↑ BBC News (2002), UK's mountain warfare elite, news.bbc.co.uk
- ↑ The Commando Role for 1 RIFLER[dead link], army.mod.uk
- ↑ Commando Logistic Regiment[dead link], royalnavy.mod.uk
- ↑ Army Command reorganization Defence Marketing Intelligence, 10 November 2011
- ↑ Higher Command[dead link]
- ↑ Divisions and Brigades[dead link], army.mod.uk
- ↑ Number of Regiments, Infantry battalions & Major Headquarters, in the Regular & Territorial Army at 1 April each year[dead link], dasa.mod.uk
- ↑ HQ Land Forces, armedforces.co.uk/
- ↑ The Mercian Regiment was formed in August 2007, to become the final regiment created as a result of the infantry amalgamations under FAS
- ↑ Arms and Services[dead link], army.mod.uk
- ↑ "Military Aircraft" House of Commons http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201212/cmhansrd/cm120131/text/120131w0002.htm#120131143001971
- ↑ 84.0 84.1 RAF - Structure, raf.mod.uk
- ↑ Transforming the Royal Air Force, raf.mod.uk
- ↑ Royal Air Force Squadrons[dead link], raf.mod.uk
- ↑ Aircraft Order of Battle[dead link], scramble.nl
- ↑ Royal Air Force - Equipment, .raf.mod.uk
- ↑ The Royal Air Force Regiment[dead link], raf.mod.uk
- ↑ RAF Regiment, armedforces.co.uk
- ↑ Evans (2005), How British Army is fast becoming foreign legion, timesonline.co.uk
- ↑ BBC News (2007), Recruitment Age for Army Raised, news.bbc.co.uk
- ↑ 93.0 93.1 93.2 UK Armed Forces Quarterly Personnel Report, gov.uk, 1 April 2014
- ↑ Women in the Armed Forces[dead link], mod.uk
- ↑ Haynes, Deborah (23 May 2009). "The Top Gun girl and the Tornado fast jet". The Times. London. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/court_and_social/article6344981.ece.
- ↑ Tornados and Taliban are all in a day's work. This is Devon (2009-12-29). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
- ↑ Collins, Nick (24 March 2011). "First woman to fly Typhoon enforces no-fly-zone". The Daily Telegraph. London. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/defence/8402845/First-woman-to-fly-Typhoon-enforces-no-fly-zone.html.
- ↑ "Royal Navy appoints first female warship commander". BBC News. 8 August 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14444808.
- ↑ "Army marches with Pride parade". BBC News. 27 August 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/manchester/4189634.stm. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
- ↑ "The LGBT community in the Armed Forces". London Gay Pride official website. 11 June 2008. http://www.pridelondon.org/blog.php?b=1216. Retrieved 6 November 2009. [dead link]
- ↑ Leake, Jonathan; Philip Cardy (28 August 2005). "Army on parade for gay recruits". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article559936.ece. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
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