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The Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias—FAR) consist of ground forces, naval forces, air and air defence forces, and other paramilitary bodies including the Territorial Troops Militia (Milicias de Tropas Territoriales—MTT), Youth Labor Army (Ejército Juvenil del Trabajo—EJT), and the Defense and Production Brigades (Brigadas de Producción y Defensa—BPD).

The armed forces has long been the most powerful institution in Cuba and high-ranking generals are believed to play crucial roles in all conceivable succession scenarios.[1] The military controls 60 percent of the economy through the management of hundreds of enterprises in key economic sectors.[2][3] The military is also Raúl Castro's base.[3] In numerous speeches, Raúl Castro has emphasized the military's role as a people's partner.[4]

From 1966 until the late 1980s, Soviet Government military assistance enabled Cuba to upgrade its military capabilities to number one in Latin America and project power abroad. The first Cuban military mission in Africa was established in Ghana in 1961. Cuba's military forces appeared in Algeria, in 1963, when a military medical brigade came over from Havana to support the regime.[5] Since the 1960s, Cuba sent military forces to African and Arab countries; Syria in 1973, Ethiopia in 1978, the Cuban intervention in Angola from 1975 to 1989, and Nicaragua and El Salvador during the 1980s.

The Soviet Union gave both military and financial aid to the Cubans. The tonnage of Soviet military deliveries to Cuba throughout most of the 1980s exceeded deliveries in any year since the military build-up during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis.

In 1989, the government instituted a clean up of the armed forces and the Ministry of Interior, convicting army Major General and Hero of The Republic of Cuba Arnaldo Ochoa, Ministry of Interior Colonel Antonio de la Guardia (Tony la Guardia), and Ministry of Interior Brigadier General Patricio de la Guardia on charges of corruption and drug trafficking. This judgment is known in Cuba as "Causa 1" (Cause 1). Ochoa and Antonio de la Guardia were executed. Following the executions, the Army was drastically downsized, the Ministry of Interior was moved under the informal control of Revolutionary Armed Forces chief General Raúl Castro (Fidel Castro's brother), and large numbers of army officers were moved into the Ministry of Interior.

Cuban military power has been sharply reduced by the loss of Soviet subsidies. Today, the Revolutionary Armed Forces number 79,000 regular troops.[6] The DIA reported in 1998 that the country's paramilitary organizations, the Territorial Militia Troops, the Youth Labor Army, and the Naval Militia had suffered considerable morale and training degradation over the previous seven years but still retained the potential to "make an enemy invasion costly.".[7] Cuba also adopted a "war of the people" strategy that highlights the defensive nature of its capabilities.

On September 14, 2012, a Cuban senior general agreed to further deepen military cooperation with China during a visit to Beijing. He said that Cuba was willing to enhance exchanges with the Chinese military and strengthen bilateral cooperation in personnel training and other areas.[8]

ArmyEdit

Santiago de Cuba - Garde au Mausolée José Marti

Guards at the Mausoleum of José Marti, Santiago de Cuba

In 1984, according to Jane's Military Review, there were three major geographical commands, Western, Central, and Eastern. There were a reported 130,000 all ranks, and each command was garrisoned by an army comprising a single armoured division, a mechanised division, and a corps of three infantry divisions, though the Eastern Command had two corps totalling six divisions.

A U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency assessment in the first half of 1998 said that the army's armour and artillery units were at low readiness levels due to 'severely reduced' training, generally incapable of mounting effective operations above the battalion level, and that equipment was mostly in storage and unavailable at short notice.[9] The same report said that Cuban special operations forces continue to train but on a smaller scale than beforehand, and that while the lack of replacement parts for its existing equipment and the current severe shortage of fuel were increasingly affecting operational capabilities, Cuba remained able to offer considerable resistance to any regional power.[10]

2002 OrganizationEdit

In 1999 the Revolutionary Army (Ejercito Revolucionario) represented approximately 70 percent of Cuba's regular military manpower. According to the IISS, the army's estimated 45,000 troops included 39,000 members of the Ready Reserves who were completing the forty-five days of annual active-duty service necessary for maintaining their status, as well as conscripts who were fulfilling their military service requirement.[11]

The IISS reported in 1999 that the army's troop formations consisted of four to five armored brigades; nine mechanized infantry brigades; an airborne brigade; fourteen reserve brigades; and the Border Brigade. In addition, there is an air defense artillery regiment and a surface-to-air missile brigade. Each of the three territorial armies is believed to be assigned at least one armored brigade-usually attached to the army's headquarters-as well as a mechanized infantry brigade. As well, it is known that the Border Brigade in Guantanamo and at least one ground artillery regiment (attached to a mechanized infantry brigade), based in Las Tunas, are under the Eastern Army's command.[11]

1996 OrganizationEdit

There are estimated to be 38,000 army personnel.[6] As of 1996, according to Jane's Information Group, the army is organized into three Territorial Military Commands with three Armies, one army for each command.[12]

Revolutionary Army Command:

  • Airborne brigade consisting of 2 battalions (at Havana and its immediate environs)
  • Artillery division (at Havana and its immediate environs)
  • SAM Brigade[13]
  • An anti-aircraft artillery regiment[13]

Western Army (deployed in the capital and the provinces of Havana and Pinar del Río)

  • 1st Armored Training Division
  • 70th Mechanised Division
  • 78th Armored Division

2nd (Pinar del Río) Army Corps:

  • 24th Infantry Division
  • 27th Infantry Division
  • 28th Infantry Division

Central Army (Provinces of Matanzas, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos and Sancti Spiritus)

  • 81st Infantry Division
  • 84th Infantry Division
  • 86th Infantry Division
  • 89th Infantry Division
  • 12th Armored Regiment/1st Armored Division
  • 242nd Infantry Regiment/24th Infantry Division

4th (Las Villas) Army Corps:

  • 41st Infantry Division
  • 43rd Infantry Division
  • 48th Infantry Division

Eastern Army (Provinces of Santiago de Cuba, Guantánamo, Granma, Holguín, Las Tunas, Camagüey and Ciego de Avila)

  • 3rd Armored Division
  • 6th Armored Division
  • 9th Armored Division
  • 31st Infantry Division
  • 32nd Infantry Division
  • 38th Infantry Division
  • 84th Infantry Division
  • 90th Infantry Division
  • 95th Infantry Division
  • 97th Infantry Division
  • Guantanamo Frontier Brigade
  • 123rd Infantry Division/former 12th Infantry Division
  • 281st Infantry Regiment/28th Infantry Division

6th (Holguín) Army Corps:

  • 50th Mechanised Division
  • 52nd Infantry Division
  • 54th Infantry Division
  • 56th Infantry Division
  • 58th Infantry Division

6th (Camagüey) Army Corps:

  • 60th Mechanised Division
  • 63rd Infantry Division
  • 65th Infantry Division
  • 69th Infantry Division

EquipmentEdit

Infantry weaponsEdit

Name Country of origin Type Notes
Makarov PM Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Semi-automatic pistol
Stechkin APS Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Automatic pistol
PM-63 RAK Flag of Poland.svg Poland Submachine gun
SKS Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Carbine Mostly limited to use as a ceremonial weapon.
AKM Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Assault rifle
AMD-65 Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary Assault rifle
Vz. 58 Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovakia Assault rifle
RPK Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Light machine gun
KPV Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Heavy machine gun
PKM Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Machine gun
Dragunov SVD Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Sniper rifle
Alejandro Sniper Rifle Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba Sniper rifle
Mambi Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba Anti-material rifle
RPG-7 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Rocket-Propelled-Grenade launcher
SPG-9 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Recoilless rifle
AGS-17 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Automatic grenade launcher
RGD-5 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Russia.svg Russia
Grenade

Light and medium tanksEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
PT-76 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 50 [14]
T-34 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba
300

Main battle tanksEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
T-54/55 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Poland.svg Poland
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba
800 Modernized active, others used as Self-Propelled Artillery with D-30 mounted; 300+ in storage[14]
T-62 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 300 T-62Ms active;[14]

Reconnaissance armoured vehiclesEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
BRDM-1 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 50
BRDM-2 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 100

Infantry fighting vehiclesEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
BMP-1 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Poland.svg Poland
400
BMD-1 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union [15]

Armoured personnel carriersEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
BTR-152 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
BTR-40 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
BTR-50 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
BTR-60 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Various versions of this vehicle. Including one with a 100mm gun and a modified T-55 turret.

Towed artilleryEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
ZIS-3 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
D-30 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Mostly used as guns for Self-Propelled Artillery to gether with modernized A-19 122mm.
M-46 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union This 130mm long range gun is used also as a Self-Propelled Artillery Piece in 6x6 truck called Jupiter-V and there is also a version mounted on a T-34 chasis.
M-30 M1938 122 mm Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union

Self-propelled artilleryEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
2S1 Gvozdika Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 60
2S3 Akatsiya Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 40
T-34/85 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba
T-55 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba
With M-46 130mm mounted

Multi rocket launchersEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
BM-14 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
BM-21 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
BM-21PD Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba Locally built version of the BM-21
P-15 Termit Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union

MortarsEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
M-41/43 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
M-38/43 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union

Anti-tank weaponsEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
AT-1 Snapper Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
AT-3 Sagger Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union Mounted on the BTR-60s and some.
9K111 Fagot Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
D-44 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
SU-100 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
T-12 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union

Anti-aircraft gunsEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
ZU-23-2 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 400
ZPU-4 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 200
ZSU-23-4 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 36
ZSU-57-2 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 25
S-60 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 200
M-1939 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 300

Ballistic missilesEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
9K52 Luna-M Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 65
Hwasong-5 / 6 Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea 330–550

SAMsEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
SA-6 Gainful Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 12
SA-7 Grail Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
SA-8 Gecko Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 16
SA-9 Gaskin Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 60
SA-13 Gopher Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 42
SA-14 Gremlin Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
SA-16 Gimlet Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Russia.svg Russia
S-75 Dvina Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 144 (Easy to find in Google Earth).
S-125 Neva/Pechora Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union 60

Self-propelled SAMEdit

Name Country of origin Quantity Notes
SA-2 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba
25 On T-55 chassis.
S-125 Neva/Pechora Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba
On T-55 chassis. This missile was seen in the Cuban Military Parade of 2006.

Special ForcesEdit

Special Forces units include the Black Wasps, and Desembarco de Granma, a special marine unit of the navy. The Ministry of Interior also has a special paramilitary unit.

Cuban Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR)Edit

Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces
Country Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba
Branch Air Force
Service history
Active 1960–present
Commanders
Insignia
Insignia Roundel of Cuba
4034204611 0c8ff691df o Cuban MIG over Florida

Cuban MiG-21MF from the 1970s

Combat radii of cuban Mig-29

CIA map showing the estimated range of Cuban Mig-29 Fulcrum jets.

FAR-MiG-21bisLAZUR(DN-ST-97-00882)

A left side view of a Cuban MIG-21 fighter aircraft inside VF-45 hangar.

The Cuban Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force (Spanish: Defensa Anti-Aérea Y Fuerza Aérea Revolucionaria) commonly abbreviated to DAAFAR in both Spanish and English, is the air force of Cuba.

Former aircraft include: MiG-15, MiG-17, MiG-19, North American B-25 Mitchell, North American P-51 Mustang, and the Hawker Sea Fury

In the 1980s, Cuba with the help of the Soviet Union was able to project power abroad, using its air force, especially in Africa. During that time Cuba sent jet fighters and transports for deployment in conflict zones such as Angola and Ethiopia.

In 1990, Cuba's Air Force was the best equipped in Latin America. In all, the modern Cuban Air Force imported approximately 230 fixed-wing aircraft. Although there is no exact figure available, Western analysts estimate that at least 130 (with only 25 operational[16]) of these planes are still in service spread out among the thirteen military airbases on the island.

In 1996, fighters from the DAAFAR shot down two Cessna aircraft based in Florida which were incorrectly suspected of dropping leaflets into Cuban airspace. The air force was criticised for not giving the pilots of the aircraft options other than being shot down. One aircraft escaped.[17]

In 1998, according to the same DIA report mentioned above, the air force had 'fewer than 24 operational MIG fighters; pilot training barely adequate to maintain proficiency; a declining number of fighter sorties, surface to air missiles and air-defense artillery to respond to attacking air forces.[18]

By 2007 the International Institute for Strategic Studies assessed the force as 8,000 strong with 41 combat capable aircraft and a further 188 stored. DAAFAR is known now to have integrated another Mig-29 and a few MiG-23s which makes it 58 combat aircraft in active service which are listed as 6 MiG-29s, 40 MiG-23s, and 12 MiG-21s. There were also assessed to be 12 operational transport aircraft plus trainers which include 8 L-39C and helicopters which are mainly Mil Mi-8, Mil Mi-17 and Mil Mi-24 Hind. Raúl Castro ordered in 2010 that all MiG-29 pilots had to have full training, they now have from 200–250 hours of flight annually together with real dogfight training and exercises. Up to 20 MiG-23 units also have this kind of training but the other 16 MiG-23 units spend more time in simulators than real flight. MiG-21 units have limited time in this exercises and spend more time in simulators and maintain their skills flying with the commercial brand of the air force Aerogaviota.

At San Antonio de los Banos military air field, south west of Havana, several aircraft are visible using Google Earth.[19]

Aircraft Origin Type Version Total delivered Current total
Combat aircraft
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 Fishbed USSR fighter / trainer MiG-21MF / MiG-21UM 60----10 55 / 5
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 Flogger USSR fighter / multirole fighter / trainer MiG-23MF/MS / MiG-23ML / MiG-23UB 21 / 21 / 5 19 / 21 / 2
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29 Fulcrum USSR fighter / multirole fighter / trainer MiG-29B / MiG-29UB 14 / 2 10 / 2
Mil Mi-8 Hip USSR transport/attack helicopter Mi-8T / Mi-8TKV 20 / 20 10 / 10
Mil Mi-17 Hip-H Russia transport/attack helicopter Mi-17 34 20
Mil Mi-24 Hind USSR attack Mi-24D / Mi-24V 25 20
Antonov An-24 Coke USSR/Ukraine cargo An-24 20 4
Antonov An-26 Curl USSR cargo An-26 17 3
Yakovlev Yak-40 Codling USSR VIP Yak-40 8 3
Ilyushin Il-62 USSR VIP Il-62 1 1
Ilyushin Il-96 Russia VIP Il-96 3 3
Aero L-39 Albatros Czechoslovakia trainer/attack L-39C 30 8
Zlin Z-326 Czechoslovakia trainer Z-326T 60 20

Cuban Revolutionary Navy (Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria, MGR)Edit

In 1998, according to a CIA report, the Cuban Navy had no functioning submarines, around 12 surface vessels that were combat ready, a 'weak' anti-surface warfare capability, primarily SS-N-2 Styx SSM equipped fast attack boats, and an 'extremely weak' anti-submarine warfare capability.

By 2007, the Cuban Navy was assessed as being 3,000 strong (including up to 550+ Navy Infantry) by the IISS with six Osa-II and one Pauk class corvette.

Almost all of the ships of the Cuban Navy have been decommissioned, and the three Koni class frigates were either expended as targets or sunk to build reefs. Cuba has constructed rolling platforms with Soviet P-15 Termit missile batteries taken from its warships and placed them near beaches where hostile amphibious assaults may occur. Most patrol boats are non-operational due to lack of fuel and spares.

The Cuban Navy also includes a small marine battalion called the Desembarco de Granma. It once numbered 550 men though its present size is not known.

Rio Damuji n° 390

The Rio Damuji n° 390 in Havana (July 2011)

There are reports of new naval projects under the [Raúl Castro] government. After the old Soviet submarines were put out of service, Cuba searched for help from North Korea's experience in midget submarines. North Korean defectors claimed to have seen Cubans in mid to late 1990s into a secret submarine base and appeared in public view years later a single picture of a small black native submarine in Havana harbour. It is rumored to be called 'Delfin' and is to be armed with two torpedoes. Further analysis confirmed it to be a derived from the North Korean Yugo class submarine and up to 6 units are rumoured to be in service, even if 2 of them are used for civilian meteorologic studies.

The Cuban Navy rebuilt one, large ex-Spanish fishing boat. The BPH-390 Rio Damuji is now armed with 2 C-201W missiles, 1 x 2-57mm guns, 2 x 2-25mm guns and 1 x14.5mm machine gun. This vessel is larger than the Koni class, and it is used as a helicopter carrier patrol vessel. A second unit (n°392) is under construction at Cienfuegos and is expected to enter into service as a military ship also.[20]

The Cuban Navy today operates its own missile systems, the made-in-Cuba Bandera (a copy of the dated Styx Soviet missiles) and Remulgadas anti-ship missile systems.

Air and Naval Air BasesEdit

List of active bases:

  • Havana – Playa Baracoa Airport (MUPB)
    • 3405th Executive Squadron
    • 3404 Transport Squadron
    • 3688 Transport Regiment

InactiveEdit

  • Nicaro Airport (MUNC)
    • abandoned airfield 1315 m (single 4314 ft runway)

FleetEdit

FutureEdit

CurrentEdit

  • 2 Rio Damuji class Frigates, 1 x 57mm gun, 2 Styx surface to surface missiles, 1 x 12.7mm machine gun, 2 x 25mm machine guns.
  • 4 ( + 2 for civilian use) Delfin class midget submarines, 2 torpedo launchers with 6 torpedoes. Derived from North Korean Yugo class submarine.
  • 1 Pauk II Fast Patrol Craft, Coastal with 1 x 76 mm gun, 4 Anti-Submarine Torpedo Tube, 2 Anti-Submarine Weapon Rocket Launcher – 495 tons full load – commissioned 1990.
  • 6 Former Soviet Union (FSU) Osa II PFM missile boats; 13 Type II transferred.
  • 3 ex-Soviet Union (FSU) Sonya Mine Sweeper Coastal; 4 transferred.
  • 5 Former Soviet Union (FSU) Yevgenya Mine Sweeper Inshore; 11 transferred.
  • 1 Intelligence Collection Vessel.
  • 2 amphibious assault battalions.
  • 122 mm artillery.
  • M-1931/3 artillery.
  • 130 mm: M-46 artillery.
  • 152 mm: M-1937 artillery.
  • 10?? SSC-3 surface to surface missile systems.

The border guards have: 2 Stenka class patrol boats and 30/48 Zhuk patrol craft. Cuba makes Zhuk patrol craft and some are seen with an SPG-9 mounted on front of the twin 30mm guns.[21][22] [23]

HistoricEdit

  • 1 Soviet Foxtrot class submarine with 533 mm and 406 mm Torpedo Tube (non-operational); 3 transferred
  • 2 Soviet Koni corvettes with 2 Anti-Submarine Weapon Rocket Launcher (non-operational); 3 transferred
  • 4 Soviet Osa I/II missile boats with 4 SS-N-2 Styx Surface-to-Surface Missile+
  • 1 Soviet Pauk II Fast Patrol Craft, Coastal with 2 Anti-Submarine Weapon Rocket Launcher, 4 Anti-Submarine Torpedo Tube
  • 1 Soviet/Polish Polnocny LSM (medium landing ship), capacity 180 tps, 6tk (non-operational)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "The Cuban military and transition dynamics". http://ctp.iccas.miami.edu/Research_Studies/BLatell.pdf. 
  2. "Challenges to a Post-Castro Cuba". Harvard International Review. http://ctp.iccas.miami.edu/website_documents/Challenges.pdf. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Carl Gershman and Orlando Gutierrez. "Can Cuba Change?". http://www.journalofdemocracy.org/articles/gratis/Gutierrez.pdf. 
  4. Claudia Zilla. "The Outlook for Cuba and What International Actors Should Avoid". http://www.icdcprague.org/download/speeches/Maria_Werlau_ENG.pdf. 
  5. John Williams, Cuba: Havana's Military Machine, The Atlantic, August 1988
  6. 6.0 6.1 IISS Military Balance 2007, p.70
  7. Bryan Bender, 'DIA expresses cconcern over Cuban intelligence activity,' Jane's Defence Weekly, 13 May 1998, p.7
  8. Cuba and China strengthen military cooperation – Armyrecognition.com, September 16, 2012
  9. Bryan Bender, 'DIA expresses concern over Cuban intelligence activity', Jane's Defence Weekly, 13 May 1998, p.7
  10. "
  11. 11.0 11.1 http://web.archive.org/web/20110605234326/http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/pdf/CS_Cuba.pdf
  12. http://web.archive.org/web/20080112102807/cubapolidata.com/cafr/cafr_military_regions.html
  13. 13.0 13.1 http://topgun.rin.ru/cgi-bin/texts.pl?category=state&mode=show&unit=297&lng=eng
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 "Cuban Tanks"
  15. * Użycki, D., Begier, T., Sobala, S. Współczesne Gąsiennicowe Wozy Bojowe. Wydawnictwo Lampart. ISBN 1-892848-01-5
  16. Cuban Armed Forces Review: Air Force
  17. Sections 3.18, 3.19 and 3.20 of the Resolution on the Cuban Government's Shootdown of Brothers to the Rescue Adopted by the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) at the Twentieth Meeting of its 148th Session on 27 June 1996 [1]
  18. Jane's Defence Weekly, 13 May 1998
  19. http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&q=22+52%2728.40%22+N+82+30%2726.04%22+W&ll=22.874643,-82.506809&spn=0.004557,0.006899&t=h&z=17 Google Earth imagery of San Antonio de los Banos airfield
  20. "PG Rio Damuji class". http://www.harpoondatabases.com/encyclopedia/Entry2242.aspx. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  21. "PC Project 1400M Grif ('Zhuk') class". http://www.harpoondatabases.com/encyclopedia/Entry1216.aspx. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  22. "Zhuk class". http://weaponsystems.net/weapon.php?weapon=GG02+-+Zhuk+class. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  23. "Cuban Border Guard". http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/cuba/tgf.htm. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

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