The Lunenburg Campaign was executed by the Mi'kmaq militia and Acadian militia against the Foreign Protestants who the British had settled on the Lunenburg Penisula during the French and Indian War. The British deployed Joseph Gorham and his Rangers along with Captain Rudolf Faesch and regular troops of the 60th Regiment of Foot to defend Lunenburg. The Campaign was so successful, by November of 1758, the members of the House of Assembly for Lunenburg stated "they received no benefit from His Majesty's Troops or Rangers" and required more protection.
Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. To prevent the establishment of Protestant settlements in the region, Mi'kmaq raided the early British settlements of present-day Shelburne (1715) and Canso (1720). A generation later, Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq (1726), which were signed after Father Rale's War.
Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. By the time Cornwallis had arrived in Halifax, there was a long history of the Wabanaki Confederacy (which included the Mi'kmaq) protecting their land by killing British civilians along the New England/ Acadia border in Maine (See the Northeast Coast Campaigns 1688, 1703, 1723, 1724, 1745, 1746, 1747).
The British quickly began to build other settlements. To guard against Mi'kmaq, Acadian and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax (Citadel Hill) (1749), Bedford (Fort Sackville) (1749), Dartmouth (1750), Lunenburg (1753) and Lawrencetown (1754). There were numerous Mi'kmaq and Acadian raids on these villages such as the Raid on Dartmouth (1751).
After the Raid on Lunenburg (1756), Governor Lawrence sought to protect the area by establishing blockhouses at the LaHave River, Mush-a-Mush (present day Mahone Bay) and at the Northwest Range (present day Blockhouse, Nova Scotia). Despite the protection of these blockhouses, Indians and Acadians continued raiding the area, executing eight such raids over the next three years. A total of 32 people from Lunenburg were killed in the raids with more being taken prisoner. The British reported that most of these raids were by the Mi'kmaq and Acadians at Cape Sable. (The Argyle, Nova Scotia region was formerly known as Cape Sable and encompassed a much larger area than it does today. It extended from Cape Negro (Baccaro) through Chebogue.)
Following the raid of 1756, Mi'kmaq made eight more raids on the Lunenburg Peninsula over the next three years. In 1757, the Mi'kmaq raided Lunenburg and killed six people from the Brissang family. That same year, the Lunenburg settlers were compelled to do "much militia duty". During the winter, 300 soldiers under the command of former Governor, now Major General, Hopson's were stationed at Lunenburg.
By year end, Governor Charles Lawrence wrote, "More inhabitants were killed and taken prisoner, by which many were too much exposed, and others apprehensive of danger. The people much discouraged, and in great distress." (By June 1757, the settlers of another Halifax satellite settlement, Lawrencetown, had to be withdrawn completely again from the settlement because the number of Mi'kmaq and Acadian raids eventually prevented settlers from leaving their houses. Of the 151 settlers who arrived in Dartmouth in August 1750, after Mi'kmaq and Acadia raids half of the settlers left the community within two years later. By the end of war (1763), Dartmouth was only left with 78 settlers.)
The following year, March 1758, the Mi'kmaq raided the Lunenburg Peninsula at the Northwest Range (present-day Blockhouse, Nova Scotia) and killed five people from the Ochs and Roder families. On 15 May 1758, Captian Faesch left Halifax for Lunenburg with troops of the 60th Regiment and an order was given for Sutherland to join the forces enroute to Louisbourg. Acadian privateers attacked shipping off of Lunenburg. By the end of May 1758, most of those on the Lunenburg Peninsula abandoned their farms and retreated to the protection of the fortifications around the town of Lunenburg, losing the season for sowing their grain. For those that did not leave their farms for the town, the number of raids intensified.
During the summer of 1758, in response to the British Siege of Louisbourg (1758), Mi'kmaq conducted four raids on the Lunenburg Peninsula. On July 13, 1758, a member of the Labrador family killed two boys on the LaHave River. The next raid happened at Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia on August 24, 1758, when eight Mi'kmaq attacked the family homes of Lay and Brant. While they killed three people in the raid, the Mi'kmaq were unsuccessful in taking their scalps, which was the common practice for payment from the French. Two days, later, two soldiers were killed in a raid on the blockhouse at LaHave, Nova Scotia.
On September 8, Jessen led 60 militia and forty troops from the 60th Regiment around the peninsula for a week to scout for Mi'kmaq, which they did not find. During that time, on September 11, Mi'kmaq captured a child in a raid on the Northwest Range.
After the Siege of Louisbourg (1758), Gorham's Rangers were stationed at Lunenburg for the winter. Despite the presence of Gorham's Rangers and the 60th Regiment, in December Lawrence wrote to the Lords of Trade, that the Mi'kmaq "had just destroyed a whole family remarkable for their industry, and that in so bloody and barbarous a manner as to terrify and drive three parts of the people from their county lots into the town for protection."
The raids continued the following spring. One raid happened on March 27, 1759, in which three members of the Oxner family were killed. The last raid happened on April 20, 1759. The Mi’kmaq killed four settlers at Lunenburg who were members of the Trippeau and Crighton families. In a letter to the Lords of Trade dated 20 September 1759, Lawrence continued to comment on the raids by Mi'kmaq and Acadians slowing the development of the community. Again, Acadian privateers attacked shipping off of Lunenburg. In his Journal, British officer Knox declared that the British garrisons and inhabitants in the colony "could not be reputed in any other light than as prisoners, " so completely was the colony controlled by the Mi'kmaq, Acadians and French.