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M2 Browning

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Ord m2 mounted lance lg

M2 Browning .50 MG on Iraq

The Browning .50 is a Heavy machinegun created by John Browning in 1918 and still in use today.

The Browning is one of the most versatile weapons in combat because of its ammunition have multiple configurations: Perforating, explosive, tracer, incendiary and antiblindagem with antiaircraft positions, land and naval.

This weapon of incredible power is still used today but is inferior to its Russian counterparts; Kord 12.7, NSV heavy machine gun and DShK, which fire the more powerful 12.7x108mm (.50 Russian) round. Is underway for a portable version for this caliber, one assault rifle or pistol.

HistoryEdit

The gun went from the experiences of U.S. military in the World War I out . You needed to defend themselves against armored vehicles, but had not the appropriate weapons for it. This should change when Colonel John Parker, an officer of the MG school of the U.S. Army in France, became aware of French 11 -mm ammunition, which was used by the French against armored targets and reconnaissance balloons.

The French munitions but was deemed too inefficient, it was John Moses Browning with the development of a very heavy machine-gun charge, the Winchester Repeating Arms Company (New Haven, Connecticut) should develop the appropriate ammunition for it . According to some sources, Browning and Winchester are already at that time such a weapon of similar design have worked, as the official order was issued, but it was still here at the caliber .30 in a stronger version of the cartridge .30-06.

The first tests in October 1918 did not show all the desired results - in particular the bullet velocity was too low and difficult to control the weapon - were still 10,000 units of the model Browning M1918 (.30-06 caliber, appointed with water ) from the U.S. Army . Only after a German Anti-tank rifle ( was captured tank gun model 18 ) with ammunition in caliber 13 mm, it became possible to develop a service with sufficient ammunition to penetrate the armor then usual . These were still produced at the U.S. Browning M2 .50 cartridge .

The new machine gun was first manufactured in 1921, several revisions and incorporated in 1933 in its final version. The imported
428px-Twin M2HB machine gun

Twin M2HB .50 caliber machine gun during a Pre-aimed Calibration Fire (PACFIRE) exercise.

versions were: M1921, M1921 A1, M2 and M2 HB. In contrast to M2, the HB version (English heavy barrel = heavy barrel ) for a longer run. The barrel is surrounded only with the standard version with a perforated casing to improve the cooling. The machine guns were used in the infantry, ships, vehicles and tanks and in aircraft.

The air-cooled version of the M2 was as throughout the Second World War as a board gun carried by aircraft. It came as a fixed version in fighter aircraft or as defensive armament in turrets or gun carriages of bombers used. The water-cooled version of the M2 has been used primarily as a light anti-aircraft machine gun. The barrel wrapped a tank with coolant, which consisted of antifreeze reasons to 60% water and 40% alcohol. The coolant circulated inside the tank and protected the gun before overheating. The MG was amended in 1942, the U.S. Navy 20-mm Oerlikon machine gun replaced.

HQCB M2 and M3MEdit

The traditional version of the M2 machine gun remained until the 1980 years into the U.S. Army and the armed forces of other countries in action. The Belgian company Herstal (Earlier the better Fabrique Nationale or FN Herstal known) developed in the seventies, the modernized version M2 HQCB . The modernization of the M2 was necessary to achieve a cost-effective compromise between the heavy machine guns and both in manufacturing and in the more expensive machine gun ammunition . In the new version, it was possible to change the course within seconds as needed for solving and fixing only two handles and the barrel were not needed to be adjusted. otherwise, there are differences in the additional carrying handle, a chrome plating of the barrel to increase the life span and some smaller changes. FN Herstal even delivered a set to upgrade old M2 can .

From 2001 to replace the American forces and their old M2HB HQCB by the new M3M, a more modernized version of FN Herstal

Variants and DerivativesEdit

M2 variantsEdit

The basic M2 was deployed in US service in a number of subvariants, all with separate complete designations as per the US Army system. The basic designation as mentioned in the introduction is Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, with others as described below.

The development of the M1921 water-cooled machine gun which led to the M2, meant that the initial M2s were in fact water-cooled. These weapons were designated Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, Water-Cooled, Flexible. There was no fixed water-cooled version.

Improved air-cooled heavy barrel versions came in three subtypes. The basic infantry model, Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Flexible, a fixed developed for use on the M6 Heavy Tank designated Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Fixed, and a "turret type" whereby "Flexible" M2s were modified slightly for use in tank turrets. The subvariant designation Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, TT was only used for manufacturing, supply, and administration identification and separation from flexible M2s.

A number of additional subvariants were developed after the end of the Second World War. The Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, M48 Turret Type was developed for the commander's cupola on the M48 Patton tank. The cupola mount on the M48A2 and M48A3 was thoroughly disliked by most tankers, as it proved unreliable in service. An externally-mounted M2 was later adopted for the commander's position on the M1 Abrams tanks. Three subvariants were also developed for use by the US Navy on a variety of ships and watercraft. These included the Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Soft Mount (Navy) and the Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Fixed Type (Navy). The fixed types fire from a solenoid trigger and come in left or right hand feed variants for use on the Mk 56 Mod 0 dual mount and other mounts.

M2 E-50Edit

A long overdue upgrade program for existing infantry M2HBs and other M2s currently in U.S. Army service, the E50 provides a: Quick Change Barrel (QCB) capability, a rail accessory mount, an improved flash hider and a manual safety.

The E50 designation initially appeared to be within the bounds of the normal U.S. Army designation system. However, it later turned out that the term was in fact a developmental project that stands for Enhanced 50, as in enhanced .50 caliber machine gun. Developed primarily as a conversion kit for existing weapons, it is likely that new production machine guns will be built to this standard. In later U.S. Army briefings, this variant has been referenced as the M2E2 or M2A1.

Aircraft GunsEdit

AN/M2 and AN/M3Edit

The M2 machine gun was widely used during World War II and in later postwar conflicts as a remote or flexible aircraft gun. For fixed (offensive) or flexible (defensive) guns used in aircraft, a dedicated M2 version was developed called the .50 Browning AN/M2. The AN/M2 had a cyclic rate of 750–850 rounds per minute, with the ability to be fired from an electrically-operated remote-mount solenoid trigger when installed as a fixed gun. Cooled by the aircraft's slip-stream, the air-cooled AN/M2 was fitted with a substantially lighter barrel, which also had the effect of increasing the rate of fire. The official designation for this weapon was Browning Machine Gun, Aircraft, Cal. .50, AN/M2 (Fixed) or (Flexible). During World War II, a faster-firing .50-inch aircraft Browning was developed, the AN/M3, using a mechanical or electrically-boosted feed mechanism to increase the rate of fire to around 1,200 rounds per minute. The AN/M3 was widely used in Korea on such planes as the F-86 Sabre and in Vietnam in the XM14/SUU-12/A gun pod, and currently in the Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano.

The XM296/M296 is a further development of the AN/M2 machine gun for remote firing applications, and is currently only used in an armament system for the OH-58 Kiowa Warrior helicopter. The M296 differs from previous remote firing variants in that it has adjustable maximum firing rate (500–850 rpm), while lacking a bolt latch (allowing single-shot operation). As an air-cooled aircraft gun used aboard a relatively slow rotary-wing aircraft, the M296 has a burst restriction rate of 50 rounds per minute; combat firing which exceeds this limit mandates a ten-minute cooling period to avoid malfunctions due to overheating.

XM213/M213, XM218, GAU-15/A, GAU-16/A, and GAU-18/AEdit

The XM213/M213 was a modernization and adaptation of existing .50 caliber AN/M2s in inventory for use as a pintle mounted door gun on helicopters using the M59 armament subsystem.

The GAU-15/A, formerly identified as the XM218, is a lightweight member of the M2/M3 family. The GAU-16/A was an improved GAU-15/A with modified grip and sight assemblies for similar applications. Both of these weapons were used as a part of the A/A49E-11 armament subsystem (also known as the Defensive Armament System).

The GAU-18/A, is a lightweight variant of the M2/M3, and is used on the USAF's MH-53 Pave Low and HH-60 Pave Hawk helicopters. These weapons do not use the heavy barrel, and are typically set up as left-hand feed, right-hand charging weapons, but on the HH-60 Pavehawks that use the EGMS (External Gun Mount System) all weapons are set up as right hand charge but vary between left and right hand feed depending on what side of the aircraft it is on. In this configuration the gun is fitted with a chute adapter attached to its left hand feed pawl bracket. Thus, the weapon can receive ammunition through a feed chute system connected to internally-mounted or externally-mounted ammunition cans. Originally designed to accommodate 1,700 rounds, these cans have since been modified due to space constraints, and now hold about half that amount with the external cans of the EGMS system holding 600 rounds each. However, many aerial gunners find the chute system cumbersome, and opt to install a bracket accommodating the 100-round cans instead. The GAU-18/A began to be supplanted by the GAU-21/A in 2006.

GAU-21/A and M3PEdit

The FN produced M3 series is also in U.S. military service in two versions. The fixed remote firing version, the FN M3P, is used by the U.S. Army on the Avenger Air Defense System. The M3M flexible machine gun has been adopted by the USAF and the USN under the designation GAU-21/A for use on helicopters.

The M3P is currently being used to upgrade the US Army's OH-58D; replacing the M2 and XM296 .50 cal. machine guns for the aircraft.

OperatorsEdit

The M2 family has been widely used abroad, primarily in its basic infantry configuration. A brief listing of designations for M2 family weapons follows:

Country NATO Member Designation Description
Argentina No M2HB 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Australia No M2HB-QCB 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Austria No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Belgium Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Benin No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Bolivia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Brazil No Mtr .50 M2 HB "BROWNING" 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Bulgaria Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Burkina Faso No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Burundi No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Cameroon No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Canada Yes FN M2HB-QCB 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Chad No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Chile No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Colombia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Côte d'Ivoire No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Croatia Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Democratic Republic of Congo No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Denmark Yes M/50 TMG 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
? 12.7 × 99 mm FNH M3M machine gun
Djibouti No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Dominican Republic No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Ecuador No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Egypt No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
El Salvador No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Ethiopia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
France Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Gabon No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Gambia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Ghana No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Germany Yes M3M, MG50 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Greece Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Guatemala No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Honduras No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
India No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Indonesia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Iran No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Ireland No .5 Heavy Machine Gun (HMG) 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Israel No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Italy Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Jamaica No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Japan No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Jordan No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Kuwait No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Lebanon No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Liberia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Lithuania Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Luxembourg Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Madagascar No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Malaysia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Mauritania No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Mexico No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Morocco No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Myanmar No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Netherlands Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
New Zealand No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Nicaragua No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Niger No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Nigeria No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Norway Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Oman No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Pakistan No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Panama No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Paraguay No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Peru No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Philippines No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Portugal Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Qatar No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Romania Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Rwanda No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Saudi Arabia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Senegal No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Serbia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Singapore No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Somalia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
South Africa No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Spain Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Sweden No Tung kulspruta (tksp) 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Switzerland No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Taiwan No T90 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Thailand No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Togo No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Tonga No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Tunisia No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Turkey Yes 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
United Arab Emirates No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
United Kingdom Yes L2A1 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
L6, L6A1 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun; ranging gun for the L7 105 mm tank gun on the Centurion tank
L11, L11A1 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun; ranging gun
L21A1 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun; ranging gun for the 120 mm tank gun on the Chieftain tank
L111A1
United States Yes Browning Caliber .50 M2, M2HB Browning Caliber .50 M2 Heavy Barrel machine gun
Uruguay No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Venezuela No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Yemen No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun
Zimbabwe No 12.7 × 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun

SpecificationsEdit

  • Maximum range: 6.9 km
  • Range accuracy: 900 mts
  • AMMO

    .50 Ammo

    Rate of fire (theoretical): 450-550 shots / min
  • Rate of fire (practice): 75 RPM
  • Calibre: .50 (12.7 mm x 99mm)
  • Max Boot: metallic ribbon ties - 50-250 ammunition
  • Charger: type metal tape
  • Barrel length: 1.14 m
  • Length of case: 99mm
  • Total length of gun: 1.65 m
  • Operation: semi, automatic
  • Number of lanes: eight lanes to right
  • Weight of barrel: 12.712 kg
  • Weight or tripod: 20 kg
  • Weight (gun only): 38.140 kg
  • Weight: 58.15 kg
  • Cooling: air
  • Initial velocity of the projectile: 880 m/s

See alsoEdit

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