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The Military Courts of the United Kingdom are now governed by the Armed Forces Act 2006.[1] The system set up under the Act applies to all three armed services, the Royal Navy (including the Royal Marines), the Army and the Royal Air Force (RAF), and replaces the three parallel systems that were previously in existence.

The military courts have jurisdiction over all members of the armed forces of the United Kingdom, and civilians subject to service discipline.

Summary hearing by Commanding OfficerEdit

Most offences by members of the armed forces against service law are dealt with by Commanding Officers through a summary hearing.[2] A Commanding Officer may deal with an offence by a summary hearing if the offence is minor and the accused is of or below the rank of commander in the Navy, lieutenant-colonel in the Army or wing commander in the RAF.[3]

Examples of offences which can be dealt with by a Commanding Officer include being absent without leave, insubordination, malingering, conduct prejudicial to good order, ill-treating subordinates and various offences against civilian law such as theft, assault, criminal damage, and careless driving. Offences which cannot be dealt with summarily include assisting the enemy, misconduct on operations (which includes a range of offences committed when the enemy is nearby, such surrendering a position, sleeping on duty, and spreading alarm or despondency), mutiny, and desertion.[4]

A person charged with an offence which could be dealt with by a summary hearing before a Commanding Officer has the right to choose trial by Court Martial instead.[5]

If a Commanding Officer dealing with an offence summarily finds the accused guilty, he can impose punishments including loss of seniority (for an officer), or reduction in rank (for a warrant officer or non-commissioned officer). For lower ranks, he can impose a term of detention in a unit guardhouse, or at the Military Corrective Training Centre in Colchester, of up to 28 days, or 90 days in serious cases, or a requirement to carry out extra work or drill, or loss of entitlement to leave. Alternatively he can impose a fine of up to 28 days' pay, or another minor punishment.[6]

Summary Appeal CourtEdit

Someone found guilty of an offence by a Commanding Officer in a summary hearing can appeal against the conviction or punishment to the Summary Appeal Court. The Summary Appeal Court is made up of a Judge Advocate, an officer, and another officer or warrant officer. A case before the Summary Appeal Court is dealt with by re-hearing the charge or decision on punishment. Rulings on matters of law are made by the Judge Advocate alone, but all other decisions are made by a majority of the members of the court. Appeals on a point of law may be made to the High Court of England and Wales.[7]

Service Civilian CourtEdit

The Service Civilian Court replaces the three separate systems (for each of the armed services) of Standing Civilian Courts which were previously established in Germany, Belgium, Holland and Cyprus.[8] The Court has jurisdiction over offences against service law which have been committed outside the British Islands by a civilian who is subject to service discipline, and which, if they had been committed in England and Wales, could be heard in a Magistrates' Court. Serious offences which, if committed in England and Wales, could only be tried by a Crown Court must be dealt with by the Court Martial.[9] The Service Civilian Court consists of a Judge Advocate sitting alone.[10]

If the Court considers that the nature of the case, or the charge, is sufficiently serious, it can refer the case to by heard by the Court Martial. The defendant can also choose to have their case referred to the Court Martial.[11]

Punishments which can be handed down by the Court include imprisonment for up to 12 months (or 65 weeks for two or more offences), a fine or community service.[12]

Appeals from the Service Civilian Court lie to the Court Martial. An appeal is dealt with by the Court Martial by re-hearing the charge or decision on punishment.[13]

Court MartialEdit

The Armed Forces Act 2006 establishes the Court Martial as a permanent standing court. Previously courts-martial were convened on an ad hoc basis. The distinction, applicable in the Army and RAF, between District Courts-Martial and General Courts-Martial (with the District Court-Martial having more limited sentencing powers than the General Court-Martial) is also abolished.[8]

The Court Martial may try any offence against service law.[14] The Court is made up of a Judge Advocate, and between three and seven (depending on the seriousness of the offence) officers and warrant officers.[15] Rulings on matters of law are made by the Judge Advocate alone, whilst decisions on the facts are made by a majority of the members of the court, not including the Judge Advocate, and decisions on sentence by a majority of the court, this time including the Judge Advocate.[16]

The punishments which can be imposed by a Court Martial range from imprisonment in a civilian prison (for any period up to life if the offence warrants it), detention at the Military Corrective Training Centre in Colchester for two years or less, dismissal from the armed services (with or without disgrace), or an unlimited fine, down to those punishments available to a Commanding Officer. Someone who has chosen to have a charge heard by a Court Martial rather than summarily by a Commanding Officer cannot be given a punishment greater than maximum available to the Commanding Officer.[17]

When trying a civilian who is subject to service discipline, the Court Martial consists of a Judge Advocate and civilian members of the court.[18] Punishments which can be handed down by the Court include imprisonment, a fine or community service.[12]

Court Martial Appeal CourtEdit

The Court Martial Appeal Court hears appeals from the Court Martial. It is mostly made up of judges from the civilian Court of Appeal for England and Wales.[8]

Further appeal lies to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

Judge AdvocatesEdit

Judge Advocates are civilian solicitors, barristers or advocates of at least 10 years standing who are appointed by the Lord Chancellor. A High Court Judge may also sit as a Judge Advocate if requested to do so by the Judge Advocate General in a particularly serious case.[19]

Director of Service ProsecutionsEdit

The prosecution of cases which are not dealt with summarily is handled by the Services Prosecuting Authority, the head of which is the Director of Service Prosecutions and whose role is similar to that of the Director of Public Prosecutions in the civilian criminal law of England and Wales. The Director, who is appointed by the Queen, need not be a member of the armed forces, but must have been a solicitor, barrister or advocate with higher rights of audience for at least 10 years.[20] The Director can appoint officers who are solicitors, barristers or advocates to be prosecutors. The current Director is Mr Bruce Houlder QC.[21]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Text of the Armed Forces Act 2006 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute Law Database . See also Explanatory Notes to the Act and the Manual of Service Law, Ministry of Defence, Joint Service Publication (JSP) 830, Vol 1 and 2 Edition 1.0 2009
  2. Military Justice System
  3. Section 52
  4. Section 53
  5. Section 129
  6. Sections 132 to 139, and section 173
  7. Sections 140 to 142, section 146 and section 149
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Explanatory Notes to the Armed Forces Act 2006
  9. Section 51
  10. Section 278
  11. Sections 279 to 280
  12. 12.0 12.1 Schedule 3
  13. Sections 285 to 286
  14. Section 50
  15. Sections 154 to 157
  16. Sections 159 to 160
  17. Sections 164 to 165
  18. Rule 33 of the The Armed Forces (Court Martial) Rules 2009 (Statutory Instrument 2009/2041), Office of Public Sector Information
  19. Military Justice system and Section 362
  20. Section 364
  21. Director of Service Prosecution's Letter of Appointment by the Queen

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