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Military of the European Union

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Template:Infobox National Military The military of the European Union today comprises the several national armed forces of the Union's 27 member states, as the area of defence is primarily the domain of nation states. European integration has however been deepened in this field in recent years, with the framing of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) as well as the creation of separate international forces revolving around the EU's defence. A number of CSDP military operations have been deployed in recent years.

Several prominent leaders, including German Angela Merkel, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini and former Belgian Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt, have voiced support for a common defence for the Union.[1][2][3] This possibility was formally laid down in Article 42 of the Treaty on European Union upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009.[4]

Additionally, the Treaty of Lisbon extended the enhanced co-operation provision to become available for application in the area of defence. This mechanism enables a minimum number of member states to deepen integration within the EUs institutional framework, without the necessity of participation for reluctant member states. The Polish government has announced its intention of examining the possibility of applying this provision in the area of defence during its Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the second half of 2011.[citation needed]

HistoryEdit

EU and NATO

Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO

  EU member only
  NATO member only
  member of both

Following the end of World War II and the defeat of Nazi Germany, the Dunkirk Treaty was signed by France and the United Kingdom on 4 March 1947 as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance against a possible German attack in the aftermath of World War II. The Dunkirk Treaty entered into force on 8 September 1947. Western European states save Germany, Ireland, Sweden (and Switzerland) joined the NATO later along with the United States. The Treaty of Brussels was signed in 1948.

In the early 1950s, France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries made an attempt to integrate the militaries of mainland Western Europe, through the treaty establishing the European Defence Community. This scheme did however not enter into force, as it failed to obtain approval for ratification in the French National Assembly, where Gaullists feared for national sovereignty and Communists opposed a European military consolidation that could rival the Soviet Union.

Nowadays, as 21 of the 27 EU member states are also members of NATO, some EU states cooperate on defence policy (collective security) albeit primarily through NATO rather than through the EU or aligned groups (such as the Western European Union). However, the memberships of the EU, WEU, and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are constitutionally committed to remain neutral on defence issues. Several of the new EU member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact.

The EU currently has a limited mandate over defence issues, with a role to explore the issue of European defence agreed to in the Amsterdam Treaty, as well as oversight of the Helsinki Headline Goal Force Catalogue (the 'European Rapid Reaction Force') processes. However, some EU states may and do make multilateral agreements about defence issues outside of the EU structures.

On 20 February 2009 the European Parliament voted in favour of the creation of Synchronized Armed Forces Europe (SAFE) as a first step towards a true European military force. SAFE will be directed by an EU directorate, with its own training standards and operational doctrine. There are also plans to create an EU "Council of Defence Ministers" and "a European statute for soldiers within the framework of Safe governing training standards, operational doctrine and freedom of operational action".[5]

Implications of the Treaty of LisbonEdit

The entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon triggered member states of the Western European Union (WEU) to scrap the organisation, which had largely become dormant, but they have kept the mutual defence clause of the Treaty of Brussels as a basis for a possible EU mutual defence arrangement.

The Treaty of Lisbon also states that:

The common security and defence policy shall include the progressive framing of a common defence policy. This will lead to a common defence, when the European Council, acting unanimously, so decides. (TEU, Article 42) [6]

Forces and arrangementsEdit

Common Security and Defence PolicyEdit

The defence arrangements which have been established under the EU institutions are part of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), a branch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). It should be noted that Denmark has an opt-out from the CSDP.

DeploymentsEdit

In 2004, EU countries took over leadership of the mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina from NATO through the European Union Force (EUFOR). The mission was given the branding of an EU initiative as the EU sponsored the force to further the force's image of legitimacy. There have been other deployments such as in Gaza and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2007, the then European High Representative for Foreign Policy, Javier Solana indicated the EU could send troops to Georgia, perhaps alongside Russian forces.[7]

Separate initiativesEdit

Separate initiatives by Member States that revolve around the defence of the European Union in some way or another, or acting as a European standing army.

Militaries of Member StatesEdit

Defence SpendingEdit

The combined defence budgets of the 27 EU member states in 2008 amounted to €200.2 billion ($260.4 billion). This represents 1.63% of European Union GDP,[8] second only to the US military's €477.4 billion ($620.5 billion) 2008 defence budget, which represents 4.5% of United States GDP. The EU figures include the spending for joint projects such as the Eurofighter and joint procurement of equipment.

France and the United Kingdom account for more than 45% of EU military expenditure.

The hypothetically combined EU military
budget compared to other military powers in 2008
Figures sourced from SIPRI and EDA.
Country Defence Budget ( Euro)[9] % of GDP[9] Date (2008)[9]
European Union European Union €200,235,000,000 1.63% 2008
France France €45,362,000,000 2.32% 2008
United Kingdom UK €42,005,000,000 2.32% 2008
Germany Germany €31,753,000,000 1.27% 2008
Italy Italy €22,631,000,000 1.44% 2008
Spain Spain €12,756,000,000 1.16% 2008
Netherlands Netherlands €8,488,000,000 1.43% 2008
Greece Greece €6,192,000,000 2.55% 2008
Poland Poland €5,974,000,000 1.66% 2008
Belgium Belgium €4,252,000,000 1.24% 2008
Sweden Sweden €4,026,000,000 1.23% 2008
Austria Austria €2,558,000,000 0.94% 2008
Portugal Portugal €2,536,000,000 1.53% 2008
Finland Finland €2,463,000,000 1.32% 2008
Denmark Denmark €2,300,000,000 1.41% 2008
Czech Republic Czech Republic €2,134,000,000 1.44% 2008
Romania Romania €2,055,000,000 1.24% 2008
Hungary Hungary €1,286,000,000 1.22% 2008
Republic of Ireland Ireland €1,077,000,000 0.58% 2008
Slovakia Slovakia €994,000,000 1.53% 2008
Bulgaria Bulgaria €797,000,000 2.34% 2008
Slovenia Slovenia €567,000,000 1.48% 2008
Latvia Latvia €370,000,000 1.60% 2008
Lithuania Lithuania €363,000,000 1.12% 2008
Cyprus Cyprus €301,178,000 1.78% 2008
Estonia Estonia €295,000,000 1.85% 2008
Luxembourg Luxembourg €185,000,000 0.53% 2008
Malta Malta €28,000,000 0.50% 2008

Active Military ForcesEdit

The EU's combined active troop total in 2008 was 1,800,707 and as of 2008, the European Union has an average of 80,177 Land Force troops deployed around the world. During a military surge the European Union can deploy 464,574 Land Force troops, of those 464,574 troops, 125,237 can be sustained in a large scale long term conflict.[8]

Flag Nation Active Personnel Reserve Force Paramilitary Total Active troops/
1000 citizens
Tanks Combat aircraft Transport aircraft Aircraft Carriers
France France 250,582 [10] 419,000 [11] 101,666 [10] 771,248 4.27 436[12] 374 186 1
Germany Germany 247,100 [13] 305,000 40,000[14] 592,100 3.45 400 241 176 0
United Kingdom United Kingdom 240,400 [15] 195,600[16] 0 436,000 3.41 493 522 197 3
Italy Italy 187,000 [17] 68,000 [18] 111,800[19] 366,000 3.42 320 306[20] 112[20] 2
Greece Greece 177,600 [21] 291,000[21] 4,000[21] 472,600 16.60 1,270[22] 254[23] 35[23] 0
Spain Spain 143,780 328,500 72,600[24] 544,880 3.49 227 151[25] 110 1
Poland Poland 100,272 [26] 234,000[27] 21,300[27] 355,572 4.23 900 251[28] 87 0
Romania Romania 90,000 [29] 104,000[29] 79,900[29] 273,900 4.31 350 119[30] 24[30] 0
Czech Republic Czech Republic 57,050 [31] 0[31] 5,600[32] 62,650 5.57 179[33] 52[34] 71[34] 0
Netherlands Netherlands 53,130 [35] 32,200[35] 3,300[36] 88,630 3.24 119 115[34] 43[34] 0
Belgium Belgium 45,800 [37] 100,500[37] 0[37] 146,300 3.94 132 68[34] 37[34] 0
Portugal Portugal 44,900 [38] 210,930[38] 25,600[39] 281,430 4.25 137 45 33 0
Bulgaria Bulgaria 39,000 [40] 303,000[40] 34,000[40] 376,000 5.1 160 80[34] 46[34] 0
Finland Finland 36,700 [41] 485,000[41] 3,100[42] 524,800 5.17 124 63 0
Austria Austria 34,600 [43] 72,000[43] N/A 106,600 4.23 237 16 3 0
Sweden Sweden 33,900 [44] 262,000[44] 35,000[45] 330,900 3.07 280 166[34] 41[34] 0
Hungary Hungary 33,400 [46] 90,300[46] 12,000[47] 135,700 3.31 0 55[34] 30[34] 0
Slovakia Slovakia 26,200 [48] 20,000[48] 4,700[49] 50,900 4.05 70 27 24 0
Denmark Denmark 22,880 [50] 64,900[50] 61,500[50] 149,280 4.24 57[51] 60 15 0
Lithuania Lithuania 13,510 [52] 309,200[52] 14,390[52] 337,100 3.53 2[53] 24[53] 0
Republic of Ireland Ireland 10,500 [54] 14,000[54] 0[54] 24,500 5.78 0[34] 12[34] 0
Cyprus Cyprus 13,000 [55] 60,000[55] 750[56] 73,750 12.80 154[55] 0 0
Slovenia Slovenia 9,000 [57] 20,000[57] 4,500[58] 33,500 1.21 9 12 0
Estonia Estonia 5,700 [59] 220,000[60]/> 20,000[59] 245,700 4.13 0 0 0
Latvia Latvia 5,500 [61] 406,592[62] 10,698[63] 422,790 2.13 0 3[64] 0
Malta Malta 2,140 [65] 0[65] 0[65] 2,140 5.37 0 0
Luxembourg Luxembourg 900 [66] 0[66] 612[66] 1,512 1.92 0 3 0
European Union European Union 1,536,274 4,549,222 798,800 6,884,296 4.36 6,895 3,523 1,349 7

See alsoEdit

Template:Politics of the European Union

Template:Militaries of European Union member states

ReferencesEdit

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  2. Merkel's European Army: More Than a Paper Tiger? by Peter C. Glover, World Politics Review, 2007-04-25.
  3. EU military at Bastille Day celebration
  4. Article 42, Treaty on European Union
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  7. Solana raises prospect of EU soldiers in Georgia EU Observer, 27.02.2007
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named eda.europa.eu
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  10. 10.0 10.1 http://www.webcitation.org/5kwpV2ULl
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  60. Aruanne riigikaitsest osavõtu kohustuse ja kaitseväeteenistuskohustuse täitmise kohta riigis 2008. aastal
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