|Richard Hetherington O'Kane|
Commander Richard H. O'Kane, USN
|Born||February 2, 1911|
|Died||February 16, 1994(aged 83)|
|Place of birth||Dover, New Hampshire|
|Place of death||Petaluma, California|
|Place of burial||Arlington National Cemetery Arlington, Virginia|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1934-1957|
|Commands held||USS Tang|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Medal of Honor|
Navy Cross (3)
Silver Star (3)
Legion of Merit
Presidential Unit Citation (2)
Rear Admiral Richard Hetherington “Dick” O'Kane (February 2, 1911 – February 16, 1994) was a United States Navy submarine commander in World War II, who received a Medal of Honor for his service on the Tang. Having also served on the near legendary Wahoo, as Executive Officer and Approach Officer, he participated (directly) in more successful attacks on Japanese shipping than any other fighting submarine officer during the war.
O'Kane was born in Dover, New Hampshire, graduated from Phillips Academy, Andover in 1930, and the U.S. Naval Academy in May 1934. He spent his first years of active duty on the heavy cruiser Chester and destroyer Pruitt. He received submarine instruction in 1938 and was then assigned to the USS Argonaut.
In early 1942, Lieutenant O'Kane then joined the precommissioning crew of the new submarine Wahoo and served as her Executive Officer (XO) on five war patrols first under Lieutenant Commander Marvin G. "Pinky" Kennedy and later under the legendary Lieutenant Commander Dudley "Mush" Morton. Morton established a record as an excellent tactician, as he preferred to run the demanding analysis and plots while his XO manned the periscopes, a reversal of standard practices. Under Morton's tutelage, O'Kane developed the skills which enabled him to become the single most accomplished American submarine commander in history.
In July 1943, Lieutenant Commander O'Kane was detached from Wahoo and soon became Prospective Commanding Officer (PCO) of the Tang, which was then under construction. He placed her in commission in October 1943 and commanded her through her entire career. He was an innovator, and developed several operational tactics that markedly increased his ship's efficiency. Among these tactics were daylight surface cruising with extra lookouts, periscope recognition and range drills — enabling clear tactical sureness when seconds counted, and methods of night surface attacks — one of his favorite techniques to obtain and maintain the initiative in battle.
In five war patrols, O'Kane and Tang sank an officially recognized total of 24 Japanese ships - the second highest total for a single American submarine and the highest for a single commanding officer. This total was revised in 1980 from a review of Japanese war records corroborated by the Tang′s surviving logs and crewmembers to 31 ships totalling over 227,000 long tons (231,000 t) sunk. This established one of the Pacific War's top records for submarine achievement. Several times during the war he took the Tang into the heart of a convoy and attacked ships ahead and behind while coolly steering clear of escorting combatants—counting on Tang′s relative position, speed, and low profile to keep clear of enemy escorts. He and the Tang also performed laudably on "Lifeguard Duty", which was a practice of positioning one or more submarines off an island to be attacked by planes of the Fast Carrier Task Forces to be in a nearby close-in "ditching station" in position to rescue downed pilots. Off Truk, he and the Tang rescued 22 airmen in one mission taking some interesting risks in the process which earned a Presidential Unit Citation.
The Tang and O'Kane's third patrol, into the Yellow Sea, ranked first in the war patrol records for number of ships sunk in a single patrol. O'Kane claimed eight ships at the time, but post-war analysis increased this to ten ships. On one attack, he had targeted two large ships with three torpedoes each and assumed three hits in each. Japanese records actually reported two hits in each with the third of each spread hitting smaller ships in the next column. This surpassed the next highest patrol which was for the Wahoo, with O'Kane as XO, in the same area the year before.
He was captured by the Japanese when the Tang was sunk in the Formosa Strait by her own flawed torpedo (running in a circle) during a surface night attack on October 24–25, 1944. O'Kane lost all but eight members of his crew, and was secretly (i.e. illegally) held prisoner until the war's end some ten months later. Following his release, Commander O'Kane received the Medal of Honor for his "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity" during his submarine's final operations against Japanese shipping.
In the years following World War II, O'Kane served with the Pacific Reserve Fleet as Commanding Officer of the submarine tender Pelias, testified at Japanese war crimes trials, was Executive Officer of the submarine tender Nereus and was Commander Submarine Division 32. He was a student at the Armed Forces Staff College in 1950–51 and was subsequently assigned to the Submarine School at New London, Connecticut, initially as an instructor and, in 1952–53, as the Officer in Charge.
Promoted to the rank of Captain in July 1953, O'Kane commanded the submarine tender Sperry until June 1954 and then became Commander, Submarine Squadron Seven. Following studies at the Naval War College in 1955–56, he served in Washington, D.C., with the Ship Characteristics Board. Captain O'Kane retired from active duty in July 1957 and, on the basis of his extensive combat record, was simultaneously advanced to the rank of Rear Admiral on the Retired List.
World War 2 SummaryEdit
|Departing From||Date||Days||Wartime Credit|
|Tang-1||Pearl Harbor, TH||January 1944||41||5 / 42,000||5 / 21,429||Marianas|
|Tang-2||Pearl Harbor, TH||March 1944||61||zero / zero||zero / zero||Palau|
|Tang-3||Pearl Harbor, TH||June 1944||36||8 / 56,000||10 / 39,160||East China Sea|
|Tang-4||Pearl Harbor, TH||August 1944||34||5 / 22,500||2 / 11,463||Empire|
|Tang-5||Pearl Harbor, TH||September 1944||lost||13 / 107,324||7 / 21,772||Formosa|
|Ranking||Number of Patrols||Ships/Tons|
|1||5||31 / 227,824||24 / 93,824|
Awards and decorationsEdit
In addition to the Medal of Honor, O'Kane received three Navy Crosses, three Silver Stars, the Legion of Merit with "V" device for valor, the Purple Heart and several other decorations. He wrote books about his service on Tang and Wahoo, entitled Clear the Bridge!: The War Patrols of the USS Tang and Wahoo: The Patrols of America's Most Famous World War II Submarine, respectively.
Admiral O'Kane was also awarded the American Defense Service Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with nine battle stars, World War II Victory Medal and the National Defense Service Medal. He was also retroactively entitled to the Prisoner of War Medal and the Combat Action Ribbon.
|Medal of Honor|
|Navy Cross with two gold award stars|
|Silver Star with two gold award stars|
|Legion of Merit with Valor device|
|Navy Commendation Medal with Valor device|
|Combat Action Ribbon|
|Prisoner of War Medal|
|Navy Presidential Unit Citation (three awards)|
|American Defense Service Medal with "Fleet" clasp|
|Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with nine battle stars|
|World War II Victory Medal|
|National Defense Service Medal|
Medal of Honor citationEdit
Rank and organization: Commander, United States Navy, commanding U.S.S. Tang. Place and date: Vicinity Philippine Islands, October 23, and October 24, 1944. Entered service at: New Hampshire. Born: February 2, 1911, Dover, N.H.
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Tang operating against 2 enemy Japanese convoys on 23 October and 24 October 1944, during her fifth and last war patrol. Boldly maneuvering on the surface into the midst of a heavily escorted convoy, CMDR O'Kane stood in the fusillade of bullets and shells from all directions to launch smashing hits on 3 tankers, coolly swung his ship to fire at a freighter and, in a split-second decision, shot out of the path of an onrushing transport, missing it by inches. Boxed in by blazing tankers, a freighter, transport, and several destroyers, he blasted 2 of the targets with his remaining torpedoes and, with pyrotechnics bursting on all sides, cleared the area. Twenty-four hours later, he again made contact with a heavily escorted convoy steaming to support the Leyte campaign with reinforcements and supplies and with crated planes piled high on each unit. In defiance of the enemy's relentless fire, he closed the concentration of ship and in quick succession sent 2 torpedoes each into the first and second transports and an adjacent tanker, finding his mark with each torpedo in a series of violent explosions at less than 1,000-yard range. With ships bearing down from all sides, he charged the enemy at high speed, exploding the tanker in a burst of flame, smashing the transport dead in the water, and blasting the destroyer with a mighty roar which rocked the Tang from stem to stern. Expending his last 2 torpedoes into the remnants of a once powerful convoy before his own ship went down, Comdr. O'Kane, aided by his gallant command, achieved an illustrious record of heroism in combat, enhancing the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
- O'Kane, Richard H. (1977). Clear the Bridge!: The War Patrols of the USS Tang. Chicago: Rand McNally. ISBN 978-0-528-81058-9. OCLC 2965421.
- O'Kane, Richard H. (1987). Wahoo: The Patrols of America's Most Famous World War II Submarine. Novato, California: Presidio Press. ISBN 978-0-89141-301-1. OCLC 15366413.
- ↑ "USS Wahoo (238) of the US Navy". http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/2984.html. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
- ↑ "USS O'Kane's biography of Richard O'Kane". United States Navy. http://www.o-kane.navy.mil/Site%20Pages/Ships%20Namesake.aspx. Retrieved February 25, 2010. [dead link]
- ↑ "Richard O'Kane, 83, U.S. Submarine Hero". New York Times. February 23, 1994. p. A16.
- ↑ "Arlington National Cemetery Website". Richard Hetherington O'Kane: Rear Admiral, United States Navy. Arlington National Cemetery.net. August 10, 2006. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/rokane.htm. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- ↑ Joint Army-Navy Assessment Committee. Blair rounded entries in his tables (see Blair 1975, p. 900, bottom) while Roscoe's tables are an accurate transcription of the JANAC report.
- ↑ Blair 1975, p. 943
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Roscoe 1949, p. 558
- ↑ Blair 1975, p. 944
- ↑ Blair 1975, p. 952
- ↑ Blair 1975, p. 955
- ↑ Blair 1975, p. 959
- ↑ Blair 1975, pp. 984–987
- ↑ "USS Los Angeles Embarks With a Piece of Submarine History". US Navy. May 16, 2007. http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=29429.
- ↑ "Pearl Harbor Bids Farewell to USS Los Angeles". US Navy. Jan 16, 2010. http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=50573.
- Blair Jr., Clay (1975). Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan. Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott Company. ISBN 0-397-00753-1.
- Roscoe, Theodore (1949). United States Submarine Operations in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute.
- "Richard H. O'Kane". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=5502961. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- Escape from the Deep: A Legendary Submarine and Her Courageous Crew. Perseus Books Group. ISBN 0-306-81519-2. http://www.perseusbooksgroup.com/dacapo/howtoorder.jsp?isbn=0-306-81519-2. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "Rear Admiral Richard O'Kane". Fleet Submarine.com. http://www.fleetsubmarine.com/okane.html. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- McDaniel, J. T. (2005). U.S.S. Tang (SS-306): American submarine war patrol reports. Riverdale Books. ISBN 1-932606-05-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=YFox4hYXGRYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=U.S.S.+Tang+(SS-306):+American+Submarine+War+Patrol+Reports&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
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