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South African Army

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South African Army
200px
Country South Africa
Service history
Active 1912 – present (from law creating the Union Defence Force)
Size 39,445 (Active)
12,300 (In Reserve)
Part of South African National Defence Force
Battles World War I
World War II
Border War
Central African Republic conflict
Commanders
Commanders Nosiviwe Mapisa-NqakulaLt Gen Vusumuzi MasondoMaj Gen L Rudman
Current commander Chief of the ArmyChief of the Army}
Command Sergeant Major Deputy CARMYDeputy CARMY
Insignia
Insignia 150px

The South African Army is the army of South Africa, first formed after the Union of South Africa was created in 1910. The current chief of the South African Army is Lt. General Vusumuzi Masondo.[1]

The South African military evolved within the tradition of frontier warfare fought by commando forces, reinforced by the Afrikaners' historical distrust of large standing armies.[2] It then fought as part of the wider British effort in World War II, but afterwards was cut off from its long-standing Commonwealth ties with the introduction of apartheid in South Africa after 1948. The apartheid policy led to friction with neighbouring states that helped to spark the border wars in South West Africa, now Namibia, from 1966. The role of the Army was fundamentally changed by the upheavals of the early 1990s and after 1994 the Army became part of the new South African National Defence Force. It is now becoming increasingly involved in peacekeeping efforts in southern Africa, often as part of wider African Union operations.

HistoryEdit

After the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, General Jan Smuts, the Union's first Minister of Defence, placed a high priority on creating a unified military out of the separate armies of the union's four provinces. The Defence Act (No. 13) of 1912 established a Union Defence Force (UDF) that included a Permanent Force (or standing army) of career soldiers, an Active Citizen Force (ACF) of temporary conscripts and volunteers as well as a Cadet organization.[3] The 1912 law also obligated all white males between seventeen and sixty years of age to serve in the military, but this was not strictly enforced as there were a large number of volunteers. Instead, half of the white males aged from 17 to 25 were drafted by lots into the ACF.

Initially, the Permanent Force consisted of five regular mounted regiments and a small artillery section. In 1913 and 1914, the new 23,400-member Citizen Force was called on to suppress several industrial strikes on the Witwatersrand.

World War IEdit

When World War I broke out in 1914, the South African government chose to join the war on the side of the Allies. General Louis Botha, the then prime minister, faced widespread Afrikaner opposition to fighting alongside Great Britain so soon after the Second Boer War and had to put down a revolt by some of the more militant elements before he could send an expeditionary force of some 67,000 troops to invade German South-West Africa (now Namibia). The German troops stationed there eventually surrendered to the South African forces in July 1915. (In 1920 South Africa received a League of Nations mandate to govern the former German colony and to prepare it for independence within a few years.)

CAP BADGE 1ST SA INFANTRY BRIGADE

Cap badge of 1st SA Infantry Brigade

Later, an infantry brigade and various other supporting units were shipped to France in order to fight on the Western Front. The 1st South African Brigade – as this infantry brigade was named – consisted of four infantry battalions, representing men from all four provinces of the Union of South Africa as well as Rhodesia: the 1st Regiment was from the Cape Province, the 2nd Regiment was from Natal and the Orange Free State and the 3rd Regiment was from Transvaal and Rhodesia. The 4th Regiment was called the South African Scottish and was raised from members of the Transvaal Scottish and the Cape Town Highlanders; they wore the Atholl Murray tartan.

The supporting units included five batteries of heavy artillery, a field ambulance unit, a Royal Engineers signals company and a military hospital.

The most costly action that the South African forces on the Western Front fought in was the Battle of Delville Wood in 1916 – of the 3,000 men from the brigade who entered the wood, only 768 emerged unscathed.

Another tragic loss of life for the South African forces during the war was the Mendi sinking on 21 February 1917, when the troopship Mendi – while transporting 607 members of the 802nd South African Native Labour Corps from Britain to France – was struck and cut almost in half by another ship.

In addition, the war against the German and Askari forces in German East Africa also involved more than 20,000 South African troops; they fought under General Jan Smuts's command when he directed the British campaign against there in 1915. (During the war, the army was led by General Smuts, who had rejoined the army from his position as Minister of Defence on the outbreak of the war.)

South Africans also saw action with the Cape Corps in Palestine.

More than 146,000 whites, 83,000 blacks and 2,500 people of mixed race ("Coloureds") and Asians served in South African military units during the war, including 43,000 in German South-West Africa and 30,000 on the Western Front. An estimated 3,000 South Africans also joined the Royal Flying Corps.

The total South African casualties during the war was about 18,600 with over 12,452 killed – more than 4,600 in the European theater alone.

The interwar periodEdit

Wartime casualties and postwar demobilization weakened the UDF. New legislation in 1922 re-established conscription for white males[4] over the age of 21 for four years of military training and service and re-constituted the Permanent Force. UDF troops assumed internal security tasks in South Africa and quelled several revolts against South African domination in South-West Africa. South Africans suffered high casualties, especially in 1922, when an independent group of Khoikhoi – known as the Bondelswart-Herero for the black bands that they wore into battle – led one of numerous revolts; in 1925, when a mixed-race population – the Basters – demanded cultural autonomy and political independence; and in 1932, when the Ovambo (Ambo) population along the border with Angola demanded an end to South African domination.

As a result of its conscription policies, the UDF increased its active-duty forces to 56,000 by the late 1930s; 100,000 men also belonged to the National Riflemen's Reserve, which provided weapons training and practice.

World War IIEdit

South Africa's contribution to World War II consisted mainly of supplying troops, men and material for the North African and Italian campaigns. Numerous volunteers also flew for the Royal Air Force.

The 1st South African Infantry Division took part in several actions in East Africa in 1940, North Africa in 1941 and 1942, including the Second Battle of El Alamein, before being withdrawn to South Africa.

The 2nd South African Infantry Division also took part in a number of actions in North Africa during 1942, but on 21 June 1942 two complete infantry brigades of the division as well as most of the supporting units were captured at the fall of Tobruk.

The 3rd South African Infantry Division never took an active part in any battles but instead organised and trained the South African home defence forces, performed garrison duties and supplied replacements for the South African 1st Infantry Division and the South African 2nd Infantry Division. However, one of this division's constituent brigades – 7 SA Motorised Brigade – did take part in the invasion of Madagascar in 1942.

The 6th South African Armoured Division fought in numerous actions in Italy from 1944 to 1945.

Of the 334,000 men volunteered for full time service in the South African Army during the war (including some 211,000 whites, 77,000 blacks and 46,000 Cape Coloureds and Asians),

The postwar periodEdit

Wartime expansion was again followed by rapid demobilization after World War II. By then, a century of Anglo-Boer clashes followed by decades of growing British influence in South Africa had fueled Afrikaner resentment. Resurgent Afrikaner nationalism was an important factor in the growth of the National Party (NP) as the 1948 elections approached. After the narrow election victory by the NP in 1948, the government began the steady Afrikanerization of the military; it expanded military service obligations and enforced conscription laws more strictly. Most UDF conscripts underwent three months of Citizen Force training in their first year of service, and an additional three weeks of training each year for four years after that.

As part of the post-war reorganization, the Defence Rifle Associations were disbanded in 1948 and replaced by a new Commando organization with a strength of 90,000 men.[5] It was also decided to establish and maintain two complete army divisions in the UDF: namely 1 SA Infantry Division and 6 SA Armoured Division, consisting of 1, 2, 3, 12, and 13 (CF) Infantry Brigades and the (PF) 11th Armoured Brigade. The divisions were formally established with effect from 1 July 1948, but with the exception of 11 Brigade they were disbanded on 1 November 1949, mainly as a result of difficulties in obtaining volunteer recruits to man the CF Brigades. The 11th Armoured Brigade was itself disbanded on 1 October 1953. In the early 1950s the Union undertook, however, to provide one armoured division for active service in the Middle East in the event of war in the region. To this end some 200 Centurion tanks were ordered, and the first were delivered in July 1952. During Exercise Oranje, conducted in 1956, the Army trialled its Centurions for the first time in a simulated nuclear war situation.

The Defence Act (No. 44) of 1957 renamed the UDF the South African Defence Force (SADF) and established within it some quick-reaction units, or Commandos, to respond to localized threats. The SADF, numbering about 20,000 in 1958, would grow to almost 80,000 in the next two decades.

Following the declaration of the Republic of South Africa in 1961, the "Royal" title was dropped from the names of army regiments like the Natal Carbineers and the Durban Light Infantry, and the Crown removed from regimental badges.

The "Border War" (1966–1989)Edit

The 1960s ushered in a new era in military history. South Africa's growing international isolation and the military threat by SWAPO and its Communist backers in South West Africa (now Namibia) prompted the government to increase military service obligations repeatedly and to extend periods of active duty. The Defence Act (No. 12) of 1961 authorized the minister of defense to deploy Citizen Force troops and Commandos for "riot" control, often to quell anti-apartheid demonstrations, especially when it deteriorated into mob riots with loss of life. The Defence Act (No. 85) of 1967 also expanded military obligations, requiring white male citizens to perform national service, including an initial period of training, a period of active duty, and several years in reserve status, subject to immediate call-up.

From 1966 to 1989 the SADF, with its South West African Territorial Force auxiliary, fought a counter-insurgency campaign against South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) rebels in South-West Africa (Namibia). These operations included the raising of special units such as the South African 32 Battalion. They also carried out operations in support of UNITA rebels in Angola and against the Cuban troops that supported the Angolan government.

As far as conventional formations were concerned, 7 SA Division and 17, 18 and 19 Brigades were established on 1 April 1965.[5] Difficulties with manning levels saw the disestablishment of 7 SA Division on 1 November 1967 and its replacement by the Army Task Force (HQ) and 16 Brigade.

Also during the 1970s, the SADF began accepting "non-whites" and women into the military as career soldiers, not only as temporary volunteers or reservists; however, the former served mostly, if not exclusively, in segregated units while the latter were not assigned to combat roles. By the end of the 1970s, the army had become the principal defender of the apartheid regime against the rising tide of African nationalism in South Africa and the region.

In 1973 two new infantry units were established: 7 Infantry Battalion (Bourke's Luck) and 8 SA Infantry Battalion (Upington), as well as 11 Commando (Kimberley), which to a great extent took over the functions of the Danie Theron Combat School's training wing. In 1973 the SADF also took over responsibility for the defence of SWA from the SA Police, and during the succeeding months the SA Army became involved in combat operations for the first time since the Second World War, clashing with groups of SWAPO terrorists infiltrating into South West Africa. It was decided in 1974 to organize the Army's conventional force into two divisions: 7 SA Infantry Division (71, 72 and 73 Motorized Brigades) and 8 SA Armoured Division (Durban) (81 Armoured Brigade, 82 Mechanized Brigade and 84 Motorized Brigade).[5] The headquarters of the two divisions were established on 1 August 1974, and 8th Armoured Division was active at its headquarters at Lord's Grounds, Durban, until at least 27 September 1992.[6]

During the 1980s, the legal requirements for national service were to register for service at age sixteen and to report for duty when called up, which usually occurred at some time after a man's eighteenth birthday.[7] National service obligations could be fulfilled by active-duty military service for two years and by serving in the reserves, generally for ten or twelve years. Reservists generally underwent fifty days per year of active duty or training, after their initial period of service. The requirements for national service changed several times during the 1980s and the early 1990s in response to national security needs, and they were suspended in 1993.

Under majority governmentEdit

From the early 1990s (after 1992) to 1 April 1997, the SA Army maintained three 'small' divisions, the 7th (HQ Johannesburg), 8th (HQ Durban) and 9th (HQ Cape Town).[8] They consisted of a reconnaissance battalion, two anti-aircraft defence battalions (AA guns), two battalions of artillery (G-5s and G-6s), a battalion of 127 mm MRLs, an engineer battalion, two battalions of Olifant MBTs, two battalions mounted in Ratel ICVs, and finally two battalions mounted in Buffel APCs. They were all amalgamated into the 7th South African Division on 1 April 1997, and became the 73rd, 74th and 75th Brigades respectively.[9]

7th Division was disbanded on 1 April 1999 and all army battalions were assigned to 'type' formations.[10] The 'type' formation force structure was implemented in accordance with the recommendations of auditing firm Deloitte and Touche, who were contracted to draw up a plan to make the SA Army more economically efficient. The Deloitte and Touche plan had the army separate its combat forces into ‘silo’ style formations for armour, infantry, artillery, and engineers. Deane-Peter Baker of the South African Institute for Security Studies said that the D&T plan, while alleviating, to an extent, the mistrust of the new South African leadership of the remaining apartheid-era South African Defence Force personnel in middle management positions, reduced the combat effectiveness of the Army, and was seen by 2011 as a mistake.[11]

Though non-white personnel did serve as unarmed labourers with the army in both World Wars, a number of non-whites were employed in segregated units during the Border War, and a number of units were completely desegregated, it was not until 1994 – when South Africa achieved full democracy – that the army as a whole was made open to all races. Today the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) has racial quotas to make sure that White, Black, Coloured, and Indian South Africans are equally represented in the armed forces.

Most of the post-1994 military involvement of the South African Army has been with peacekeeping operations under United Nations and African Union command in other African countries such as Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Command, Control & OrganisationEdit

The SA Army command structure is as follows:[12] The Army has 10 general support bases.

File:SA Army structure.jpg

DirectoratesEdit

  • Chief of the SA Army Force Structure - To structure the SA Army in order to provide the SA Army component of the Landward Defence Capability.[13]
  • Chief of the SA Army Force Preparation - Responsible for directing, orchestrating and controlling the combat readiness of SA Army Forces
  • Chief of the SA Army Corporate Services - Directing corporate resources, services and advice directed towards operationalising the SA Army strategy.
  • Inspector General - Provides an internal audit service within the Army strategy.
  • Chief of the SA Army Reserves - To give specialist advice to Chief of the SA Army and his staff in all Reserves related issues
  • Sergeant Major of the Army (South Africa) - To enhance discipline in the SA Army and enforce standards of discipline.

Formations and unitsEdit

The two standing army brigades are Headquarters 43 SA Brigade and Headquarters 46 SA Brigade.[12] Each of these two units are organised to provide four headquarters groups. Two of these units should be available for deployment at any one time whilst the other two are on leave and in training.

In accordance with the Deloitte and Touche structure plan, the army was reorganised into single-branch 'formations':

- SA Army Combat Training Centre
  • South African Army Support Formation

BudgetEdit

A budget of approximately Rand 9.98 billion was allocated for fiscal year 2010/2011. In December 2010, it was reported that funding shortages were causing severe problems.[14]

The vast majority of army equipment is nearing the end of its service life, with some items (like the Olifant Main Battle Tank) dating from decades ago.

The South African National Defence Force has however started to remedy the situation with the procurement of 264 Patria AMV infantry fighting vehicles under the Hoefyster programme. Other procurements are planned and should follow in line with the guideline document – Army Vision 2020. The SANDF has launched a project called "African Warrior" which is aimed in modernising the equipment and weapons of the SANDF. The project has been very successful in recent years and the South African Army has now put in service a 21st-century R4 assault rifle.[15]

PersonnelEdit

The South African Army is composed of roughly 39,445 regular uniformed personnel, augmented by 4,500 civilians. The rank/age structure of the army that deteriorated desperately during the 1990s is greatly improving through the Military Skills Development (MSDS) voluntary national service system. Through this system, young healthy members are being inducted into the regular and reserve forces every year.

Due to the restructuring of the Reserves, the exact number of reserves is difficult to ascertain. However Defence Minister Mosiuoa Lekota in his 2007 budget speech to the National Assembly indicated there currently are roughly 11,000 reserve force members in the army regular reserve.

There were several thousand other members in the army territorial reserve (South African Commando System). Each Commando was responsible for the safeguarding and protection of a specific community (both rural or urban). However, this system was phased out between 2003 and 2008 "because of the role it played in the apartheid era", according to the Minister of Safety and Security Charles Nqakula.[16] The last commando unit, that at Harrismith in the Free State, was disbanded in March 2008.

South African military ranks are derived from that of the British Armed Forces, with Army ranks derived from the British Army.

EquipmentEdit

South Africa Rooikat

Rooikat Armoured Car

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Light weaponsEdit

Combat vehiclesEdit

Name Type Number In Service Comments
Olifant MK1A/1B/2 Main battle tank 191 total (44 MK1A/1B and 26 MK2 active) Modernized Centurion tank
Rooikat 76 8 wheeled armoured fighting vehicle 178 total (84 active)
Ratel 20/60/90 Infantry fighting vehicle 1 200 total (534 active) Will be replaced by "Badger" Patria AMV IFVs (264) (South Africa/Finland)
Ratel ZT-3 Ratel IFV with Ingwe ATGM Launchers 52

ArtilleryEdit

Other vehiclesEdit

  • Various engineer vehicles (combat bridgelayers etc.) (South Africa)

PlansEdit


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The South African Army released its ARMY VISION 2020 guidelines document during 2006.

According to this, the army plans a return to a division based structure, from the current formation structure where units are simply provided as needed and assigned to the two active brigades. (43 SA Brigade and 46 SA Brigade) The last South African division, 7 Division, was disbanded in mid-1999.[10] In many respects the restructuring is an attempt to undo the effects of the Deloitte and Touche-inspired force design that came into effect in 2001.[11]

The new plan is to create two divisions, a Mechanised Division for home defence and a Motorised Division to be used primarily for external peacekeeping operations. Additional to this, a Special Operations Brigade will be created to conduct mountain, jungle, airborne and amphibious operations. Mostly this will require only administrative changes as the units already exist. Specialised training will have to be carried out though, as and when funds become available.

A works regiment is to be created also, to help with the maintenance of army and Defence Force buildings and infrastructure. Older troops will be used for this, supplying them with work, whilst at the same time saving on contractor fees and catching up on the backlog of building maintenance. The technical support for certain vehicles is also to be brought back in house, to save on contractor fees.

On 19 September 2007 Jane's Defence Weekly published more details of the implementation plan for Vision 2020, which is to be carried out in four stages.[17] Phase 1, to be carried out in 2008, will see the army HQ reorganised in standard NATO-style staff divisions (G1, G2, etc), and the Works Regiment established. The Works Regiment will be created under the Army's Engineering Corps, and will have one squadron in each of the country's nine provinces. Phase 2, in 2009–10, will include the establishment of three Pretoria-based commands, Land, Support, and Training, and ten brigades (Contingency, Armoured, Mechanised, and seven Motorised) which will incorporate regular and some reserve units.

In 2011 under Phase 3 the two division HQs and their divisional troops will be established. The Mechanised Division, the core deterrent force, will be headquartered at Mafikeng, with an armoured brigade at Bloemfontein, a mechanised brigade at Kimberley, and a motorised brigade at Potchefstroom. The Mechanised Division will be the primary home defence formation and the Motorised Division will provide troops for peacekeeping operations. Its HQ will be at Pretoria, with brigades at Polokwane (formerly Pietersburg), Nelspruit, Johannesburg, Durban, Port Elizabeth and Cape Town. Finally in Phase 4 from 2011 onwards the remaining reserve units required for the army's combat force will be rejuvenated.

South African Army

Future structure of the South African Army

Future programmesEdit


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The factual accuracy of this article may be compromised due to out-of-date information


Source[18]

  • Project Acrobat: Acquisition of long-range 60mm mortar system. 102 systems ordered mid-2006 for R101 million as part of Project Acrobat, delivery expected from 2009 to 2010
  • Project Aorta: A scheme for a new main battle tank. The South African Armoured Corps operated up to a 168 Olifant Mk1B and Mk2 MBT, modified Centurion cruiser tanks. The Centurion tank in its early versions first saw action in Germany in the closing weeks of the Second World War (three were rushed to Northern Germany but failed to arrive in time to see action). Between 90 and 110 MBT were to have formed part of the government's ongoing Strategic Defence Package but fell by the wayside for a variety of reasons.
  • Project Billet: Acquisition of a new generation semi-static communications infrastructure for operation by 2 Signal Regiment.
  • Project Bioskoop: Development of local warning radar system and battery command post for air defence. Four Thutlhwa (Kameelperd, Giraffe) ordered 1996 and delivered 2006. Requirement stands for a troop command post.
  • Project Blesbok: Partial acquisition of new-generation water purification and provisioning system using a shortened acquisition process. Foreseen date for production: 2008.
  • Project Chamber: Acquisition of a new generation tactical electronic capability for 5 Signal Regiment[1]. R110 million budgeted.
  • Project Citizen: Partial acquisition of a new-generation maintenance, repair and recovery system. Foreseen commissioning 2013.
  • Project Cytoon: Development and partial acquisition of a battlefield surveillance and mobile intelligence processing system consisting of a battlefield surveillance radar, thermal imager and UAV. Foreseen commissioning: 2009.
  • Project Guardian (GBADS 1): Local warning segment of the Ground-Based Air Defence System (GBADS). Two Thales PAGE warning radars, eight Lightweight Multiple Launchers for the Starstreak very short-range air defence missile
  • Project Hoefyster: Partial acquisition of a new generation infantry fighting vehicle. 264 Patria Advanced Modular Vehicles on order at a cost of R8.4 billion. Denel Land Systems awarded contract. Deliveries from 2010.
  • Project Isibali: New generation (insensitive) explosives.
  • Project Kingfisher: Upgrade of 30 Milan launchers to Milan ADT-ER status and acquisition of 300 missiles for R167.4 million. Delivery underway. Up to 100 more launchers can be upgraded.
  • Project Legend: Acquisition of the first phase of a tactical command, control, communications and information computer (C4I) system for the brigade-and-below. A R30m+ contract awarded to Saab Systems SA in 2008.
  • Project Musuku: Development and partial acquisition of an advanced multi-role light artillery gun capability in the form of the 105 mm "Light Experimental Ordnance". Foreseen commissioning: 2012.
  • Project Outcome (GBADS III): Planned acquisition of the Umkhonto all weather surface-to-air-missile (AWSAM). No dates as yet.
  • Project Pantile: Acquisition of engineer earthmoving/construction equipment. Foreseen commissioning: 2009
  • Project Pirate: Partial acquisition of a new generation hand-held mine detector. Foreseen commissioning: 2008.
  • Project Prickley (sic) Pear: Acquisition of a data base geographical information system for the SANDF.
  • Project Protector (GBADS II): Development and partial acquisition of a mobile ground-based air defence system. Possible R3bn[2] budget for land-based Umkhonto IR missile. Foreseen commissioning: 2010.
  • Project Radiate:A new generation tactical communications system for operation by 1 Signal Regiment.
  • Project Sepula: A new generation armoured personnel carrier for the SA Army to replace the 220 Mamba and 170 Casspir that remain in service. The thinking is the Sepula vehicle should have a high level of commonality with the Vistula choice and at least share the drive train to form a "family" of vehicles. Assuming about 90 vehicles a motorised infantry battalion and multiplying that with the number of regular units as well as "some" Reserve Force regiments, about 1000 will be required at a cost of about R3 to R4 million each.
  • Project Swatch: Development and partial acquisition of mobile camping system. No funds available at May 2007.
  • Project Teamster: Development and partial acquisition of mass field feeding system (field kitchen). Foreseen commissioning: 2008.
  • Project Tladi: "Zone 1" anti-tank. New generation portable infantry A/T rocket launcher to replace RPG7 and FT5.
  • Project Topstar: Partial acquisition of new-generation gyroscopic systems for the artillery. Foreseen commencement of commissioning: 2008. Not SCAMP funded.
  • Project Utolo: Partial acquisition of minefield breaching system to replace Plofadder. In study phase 2005-7.
  • Project Vistula: A drive to acquire up to 3000 new tactical 5t and 10t trucks for the SA Army and its sister Services. To replace the SAMIL series.
  • Project Vundulula: Partial acquisition of field fire fighting system. Project not funded beyond study phase (in 2005).
  • Project Warrior: Dismounted soldier system. Acquisition study for low risk items completed 2006. Development plan for complex sub-systems underway.
  • Project Wyandotte: Study of deeper level logistics: Transport by truck, train and ship. Project not funded beyond study phase.
  • Not registered as a project by September 2008: Acquisition of a new light armour system for the Armoured Corps to replace the Eland-series armoured car. Required Operational Capability Study completed.

See also Edit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "profiles". Army.mil.za. http://www.army.mil.za/aboutus/profiles.htm. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  2. Library of Congress Country Study:South Africa
  3. Library of Congress Country Studies: South Africa, Early Development of the South African Military, 1996
  4. "THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ARMY | Lillie | Scientia Militaria - South African Journal of Military Studies". Scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za. http://scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za/pub/article/view/618/622. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 South African Defence Review via http://www.rhodesia.nl/sadfhist.htm
  6. See http://samilitaryhistory.org/92/92augnew.html
  7. Library of Congress Country Studies, Early development of the South African military
  8. See Jane's Defence Weekly 20 December 1992 and, earlier, 20 July 1991. The term 'small' is used here in comparison with the 'normal' strength of a division of nine manoeuvre battalions. Divisional HQ location source http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/asr/SADR13/Sass.html
  9. Corps History 1988–98
  10. 10.0 10.1 http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702:7-sa-division&catid=79:fact-files&Itemid=159, accessed May 2011
  11. 11.0 11.1 Deane-Peter Baker, 17 October 2007: South African Army Restructuring A Critical Step, Institute for Security Studies
  12. 12.0 12.1 "SA Army Force Structure: Level 2". army.mil.za. http://www.army.mil.za/structure/Presentationarmyl2.pdf. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  13. "structure". Army.mil.za. 2010-12-13. http://www.army.mil.za/structure/structure_detail_level_2.htm. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  14. "Lack of funds harming South African Army". http://www.defpro.com/news/details/20176/. Retrieved 2010-12-02. 
  15. "Denel showcases a 21st Century R4 assault rifle at AAD". DefenceWeb. 2010-09-24. http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9747:denel-showcases-a-21st-century-r4-assault-rifle-at-aad&catid=50:Land&Itemid=105. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  16. http://allafrica.com/stories/200805290408.html
  17. Helmoed-Romer Heitman, 'South African Army outlines restructure plan', JDW Vol. 44 Issue 38, 19 September 2007
  18. Leon Engelbrecht, Fact File: SANDF Projects – DefenceWeb.co.za

Further reading Edit

  • Hilton Hamann, 'Days of the Generals: The Untold Story of South Africa's Apartheid-era Military Generals,' Struik Publishers; 1st edition (23 July 2007), ISBN 1868723402, ISBN 978-1868723409.

External linksEdit

Template:South Africa topics

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