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T-84
UkrainianT84Tank
An early model T-84 tank—later versions have reactive armour integrated more smoothly with the hull.
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin Ukraine
Service history
In service 1999–present
Used by See Users
Production history
Designer KMDB
Designed 1993–94
Manufacturer Malyshev Factory
Produced 1994–present
Specifications (T-80[1])
Weight 46 tonnes
Length 7.086 m (23 ft 3 in)
Width 3.775 m (12 ft 5 in)
Height 2.215 m (7 ft 3 in)
Crew 3

Elevation +13°, -6°

Armour Steel, composite, ERA
Primary
armament
KBA-3 125 mm smoothbore gun (43 rds)
Secondary
armament
7.62 mm KT-7.62 coaxial machine gun
12.7 mm KT-12.7 anti-aircraft machine gun
Engine KMDB 6TD-2 6-cylinder diesel
1,200 hp (890 kW)
Power/weight 26 hp/tonne
Suspension Torsion-bars, hydraulic dampers
Ground clearance 0.515 m (1 ft 8.3 in)
Fuel capacity 1,300 l (290 imp gal; 340 US gal)
Operational
range
540 km (340 mi)
Speed 65 km/h (40 mph) - 70 km/h (43 mph)


The T-84 is a Ukrainian main battle tank, a development of the Soviet T-80 main battle tank. It was first built in 1994 and entered service in the Ukrainian Armed Forces in 1999. The T-84 is based on the diesel-engined T-80 version, the T-80UD. Its high-performance opposed piston engine makes it one of the fastest MBTs in the world, with a power-to-weight ratio of about 26 horsepower per tonne (19 kW/t). The T-84 Oplot is an advanced version incorporating an armoured ammunition compartment in a new turret bustle; ten of these entered Ukrainian service in 2001. The T-84-120 Yatagan is a prototype model intended for export, mounting a 120 mm gun capable of firing standard NATO ammunition and guided missiles.

Production historyEdit

T-84 Oplat guided onto a tank transporter

BM Oplot-M guided onto a tank transporter.

The T-84 is the latest Ukrainian development of the T-80 series, designed by KMDB in Kharkiv. A main design objective was to make Ukraine's arms industry independent of Russia's, after resulting difficulties in fulfilling a contract to supply T-80UD tanks to Pakistan.[2][3] An external difference from earlier models is the new Ukrainian welded turret, replacing the T-80's Russian-built cast turret (some T-80s shipped to Pakistan were fitted with the T-84 welded turret, but lack other T-84 improvements).[4]

The T-84's outstanding feature is the 26 hp/t power-to-weight ratio. It has inherited the nickname Flying Tank from the T-80. The tank is also designed to perform well in hot climates, and even includes an air-conditioned crew compartment (operating temperature range is claimed to be −40 °C to 55 °C).

Due to the collapse of Soviet Union, the Malyshev Factory was no longer able to obtain ceramic armour modules from Russia and only the initial batch of T-84 were produced with such. Instead, later batches of T-84's composite armour is composed of special purpose rubber sandwiched between steel and alloy plates. The exclusion of ceramic plate from the tank's armour may indicate downgraded protection compared to older models.[5]

Ukraine has demonstrated several upgraded prototypes of this tank, intended for both domestic employment and international sale.

Operational historyEdit

UkraineEdit

The first T-84 prototype vehicle rolled out in 1994, and in the same year it was decided to build several more vehicles. They were subjected to extensive company and army trials. After successful completion of the extensive trials programme in the late 1990s the T-84 MBT entered service with the Ukrainian Army in 1999.[6] On 24 August 2000, 10 T-84 MBTs took part in the parade dedicated to the 10th anniversary of Ukraine's independence.[7]

ThailandEdit

In September 2011, The Malyshev Plant, based in Kharkiv, announced plans to produce the first batch of five Oplot tanks for the Thai Army by the end of the year. Under the contract, the Ukrainian company will make 49 tanks worth over USD 200 million.[8]

GeorgiaEdit

In October 2009, Ukrspetsstroi plans to sell to Georgia 12 modern T-84 Oplot tanks, among other weapons.[9][10]

VariantsEdit

  • T-84: Ukrainian Modernization of the T-80UD. New welded turret and Shtora-1 countermeasures suite, new electronics, new main gun, new armor, and 1,200 hp (895 kW) 6TD-2 diesel engine.
  • T-84U: Ukrainian upgrade of the T-84. New armoured side skirts, turret-conformal Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour, auxiliary power unit, thermal imaging sight, satellite navigation, commander's laser range-finder, muzzle reference system, and other improvements.
  • T-84 Oplot: T-84U with new western-style turret, but retaining the 125 mm gun. The Oplot tank features a new welded turret with separate crew and ammunition compartments with blowout panels on the ammunition compartment, a new bustle-mounted autoloader. A small number are in service with the Ukrainian Army.
  • T-84-120 Yatagan: a prototype version of Oplot tailored for evaluation by the Turkish Army (prototype designation, KERN2-120). Mounts a 120 mm main gun which fires both NATO 120 mm rounds (like the M829 DU series) and a special 120 mm version of the AT-11 Sniper ATGM. It also has automated gear shifting in place of mechanical gear selector, driver's T-bar control replacing tiller bars, air conditioning, and projectile muzzle velocity sensor, as well as differences in the fire control system, communications, etc.
  • T-84 Oplot-M (Modernized), or "BM Oplot": The newest and most sophisticated version of the T-84 is an upgraded version of the "T-84 Oplot" mounting more advanced armor, new electronic countermeasure systems, and others. One visible feature is the new PNK-6 panoramic tank sight.[11]
  • BREM-84: armoured recovery vehicle
  • BMU-84: bridgelayer tank
  • BTMP-84: Heavy infantry fighting vehicle prototype based on the T-84 Oplot tank, with lengthened hull, an extra pair of road wheels, and a rear compartment for five infantrymen.

SpecificationsEdit

T-84 T-84 Oplot T-84 Oplot-M
In active service 1999-? 2001-? 2008–present
Produced 1994-? 2001-? 2008–present
Number built 136 6 27
Length 23.23 ft (7.08 m) 23.21 ft (7.07 m)
Width 12.37 ft (3.77 m) 13.70 ft (4.18 m)
Height 7.22 ft (2.20 m) 9.17 ft (2.80 m)
Top speed 40.5 mph (65.2 km/h) 43.5 mph (70.0 km/h)
Range 336 mi (541 km) 310 mi (500 km)
Weight 46 tonnes 51 tonnes
Main armament 2A46 125 mm gun
Crew 3 (commander, gunner, driver)

UsersEdit

  • Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine
The Ukrainian Ground Forces has 10 T-84 Oplot-M in service.
  • Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand
The Royal Thai Army has 5 T-84 Oplot-M in service.[12] In March 2011, the Royal Thai Army placed an order for 49 T-84s to replace its fleet of aging M41A3 Walker Bulldog light tanks. Up to 200 tanks may eventually be acquired. However, the Royal Thai Army had yet to make an official announcement.[13][14] The government had just approved 7.155 billion baht to purchase the first 49 Oplot tanks to be assigned to several units: the 2nd cavalry battalion (Royal Guard at Fort Chakkraphongse, Prachinburi), the 4th cavalry battalion (Royal Guard at Kiakkai, Bangkok), the 8th cavalry battalion (Fort Suranari, Nakhon Ratchasima), and the 9th cavalry battalion (Fort Ekathotsarot, Phitsanuloke).[15][16][17] The first T-84 Oplot will be delivered to be tested at Cavalry Center at Fort Adisorn, Saraburi in mid-2013 and during the official procurement. The factory in Ukraine had offered the extra 5 T-84 Oplot in addition to the first 49 Oplot tanks.[18] On January 5, 2013, it was announced that the first 5 T-84s would be delivered by May 2013 for training purposes.[19] The first five Thai T-84 tanks were handed over on 15 October 2013.[20]
  • Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia
12 T-84 oplot-M tanks confirmed to be in service in the Georgian Land Forces

Potential salesEdit

  • Flag of Peru.svg Peru
In 2009, Peru reportedly tested the Oplot tank, but the government of Alan Garcia later decided to acquire test examples of the Chinese MBT-2000 in late 2010, only to have the government of his successor, Ollanta Humala, abandon the purchase in early 2012 to seek other alternatives.[21][22] In May 2013, the T-84 was reported to be part of comparative tests to be conducted by Peru. The T-84 competed against the T-90S, the M1A1 Abrams, the Leopard 2A4 and A6, and the T-64 also offered by Ukraine.[23] By September 2013, only the T-84, T-90S, Russian T-80, and M1A1 Abrams were still competing.[24]

Lost salesEdit

  • Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
In 2007 the Bangladesh Army began negotiations for the procurement of 76 T-84 Yatagan tanks in the first batch. The Bangladesh Army intends to induct a substantial number of Yatagans (200 to 300) over the next several years as part of its third generation main battle tank procurement program.[25] However, Bangladesh finally has decided to buy 44 MBT-2000 in 2011.[26]
  • Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan
In January 2011, Azerbaijan showed interest in the Oplot main battle tank. The Defense Ministry of Ukraine has long been holding negotiations on this issue.[27] In June 2013, it has been made public that Azerbaijan had instead purchased 94 Russian T-90 tanks,[28] in a series of rearmament deals worth $4 billion with Russia.[29]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Jane's Armour and Artillery, 2005–2006
  2. T-84 MBT globalsecurity.com
  3. Zaloga 2000, p 3.
  4. Zaloga 2000, p 4.
  5. Citation Needed
  6. http://www.morozov.com.ua/eng/body/history4-19.php
  7. http://www.militaryfactory.com/armor/detail.asp?armor_id=525
  8. [1] - Oplot tanks for the Thai Army
  9. [2] - Oplot tanks for the Georgia
  10. http://www.eurasianet.org/node/61428
  11. [3][dead link]
  12. http://www.ukroboronprom.com.ua/en/newsview/1/276
  13. "New Ukraine tanks leave soldiers riled". Bangkok Post. http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/local/228666/new-ukraine-tanks-leave-soldiers-riled. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  14. "Украина выиграла тендер на поставку 200 танков "Оплот" в Таиланд" (in Russian). http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14236218.html. 
  15. "วาระแทรกซื้อรถถังยูเครน ครม.อนุมัติ 7.2 พันล้าน" (in Thai). The Nation (Thailand). http://breakingnews.nationchannel.com/read.php?newsid=508154&lang=T&cat=. Retrieved 4 May 2011. 
  16. "รถถัง7พันล้าน ครม.สั่งลา เอาใจกองทัพ" (in Thai). Thai Rath. http://www.thairath.co.th/content/pol/169018. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  17. "สำนึกในการซื้อ "อาวุธ" ของกองทัพ กรรมวิธีในการสร้างฉันทามติจากสังคม" (in Thai). มติชน. http://www.matichon.co.th/news_detail.php?newsid=1304570454&grpid=&catid=02&subcatid=0200. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  18. "ทบ.เตรียมรับศึกบูรพาทิศช็อปรถถังT-84 OPLOT" (in Thai). The Nation (Thailand). http://www.komchadluek.net/detail/20120528/131339/%C3%A0%C2%B8%E2%80%94%C3%A0%C2%B8%C5%A1.%C3%A0%C2%B9%E2%82%AC%C3%A0%C2%B8%E2%80%A2%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%A3%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%B5%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%A2%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%A1%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%A3%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%B1%C3%A0%C2%B8%C5%A1%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%A8%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%B6%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%81%C3%A0%C2%B8%C5%A1%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%B9%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%A3%C3%A0%C2%B8%C5%BE%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%B2%C3%A0%C2%B8%E2%80%94%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%B4%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%A8%C3%A0%C2%B8%C5%A0%C3%A0%C2%B9%E2%80%A1%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%AD%C3%A0%C2%B8%E2%80%BA%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%A3%C3%A0%C2%B8%E2%80%93%C3%A0%C2%B8%E2%80%93%C3%A0%C2%B8%C2%B1%C3%A0%C2%B8%E2%80%A1T84OPLOT.html#.UMjXLeSZYlc. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  19. Ukraine to deliver first batch of T-84 Oplot main battle tanks to the Army of Thailand - Armyrecognition.com, January 7, 2013
  20. Thai army takes delivery of the first five Ukrainian made T-84 Oplot main battle tanks - Armyrecognition.com, 20 October 2013
  21. Páez, Ángel (March 7, 2012). "El Ejército renueva proyecto para sustituir los viejos tanques T-55" (in Spanish). La Republica. http://www.larepublica.pe/07-03-2012/el-ejercito-renueva-proyecto-para-sustituir-los-viejos-tanques-t-55. 
  22. "Peruvian army discards Chinese MBT-2000 for the Russian T-90 better for the areas in Peru". March 13, 2012. http://www.armyrecognition.com/march_2012_new_army_military_defence_industry/peruvian_army_discards_the_chinese_mbt-2000_for_the_russian_t-90_better_for_areas_in_peru_1303124.html. 
  23. Peruvian Tank Contenders - Army-Technology.com, May 17, 2013
  24. Peru; Future main battle tank projects lags on despite criticism - Dmilt.com, 2 September 2013
  25. Yatagan Main Battle Tank bdmilitary.com
  26. Hasan Jahid Tusher (2011-06-27). "Army to get 44 tanks". Archive.thedailystar.net. http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=191737. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  27. "Azerbaijan to purchase new Oplot tank from Ukraine". 8 January 2011. http://www.news.az/articles/politics/29475 .
  28. http://en.apa.az/news/194531
  29. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-08-13/azeri-russian-arms-trade-4-billion-amid-tension-with-armenia.html
  • Steven Zaloga and David Markov (2000). Russia's T-80U Main Battle Tank. Hong Kong: Concord. ISBN 962-361-656-2.

External linksEdit

Nuvola apps kview.svg External images
The T-84
Searchtool.svg Photo of T-84
Searchtool.svg T-84 and improved T-72
Searchtool.svg Gunner's station from inside

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