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Vietnam People's Air Force
Vietnam People's Air Force insignia
Country Vietnam (North Vietnam in the past)
Branch Five branches
  • Aircraft
  • Air Defence missiles
  • Air Defence artillery
  • Radar Surveillance
  • Paratroops
Service history
Active 1959 - present
Size 30,000 personnel (2009)
551 active aircraft
Part of Vietnam People's Army
Colors          Azure, Dark Green
Battles First Indochina War
Vietnam War
Cambodian-Vietnamese War
Sino-Vietnamese War
Decorations Vietnam Hero ribbon Vietnam Gold Star ribbon Vietnam Hochiminh Order ribbon Vietnam Independence Order ribbon Vietnam Military Exploit Order ribbon
Commanders
Commanders Lieutenant General Phuong Minh HoaMajor General Nguyen Van ThanhMajor General Nguyen Van Tho
Current commander Political CommissarPolitical Commissar}
Command Sergeant Major Chief of StaffChief of Staff
Insignia
Insignia
Flag of the Vietnam People's Air Force

The Vietnam People's Air Force (Vietnamese language: Không quân Nhân dân Việt Nam ) is the air force of Vietnam. It is the successor of the former North Vietnamese Air Force and the absorbed Republic of Vietnam Air Force following the re-unification of Vietnam in 1975. The Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) is one of three main branches in the Vietnam People's Army which is a part of the Ministry of Defence. The main mission of the VPAF is the defence the Vietnamese airspace and the provision of air cover for operations of the Vietnam People's Army.

HistoryEdit

Beginning-1964 (North Vietnam)Edit

The first aircraft in service for the Vietnamese Armed Forces were two trainers, a de Havilland Tiger Moth and a Morane-Saulnier, which were initially the private property of the emperor Bảo Đại.[1] In 1945, Bảo Đại gave the aircraft to the Vietnamese government. Until 1950, even though the Vietnam People's Army (VPA) had acquired credible offensive capabilities on the ground, it was almost powerless against reconnaissance or attacking operations from the French Expeditionary Air Force. On March 9, 1949, General Vo Nguyen Giap was authorized to establish the Air Force Research Committee (Ban Nghiên cứu Không quân) under the General Staff to study ways to deal with the air war. The first Vietnamese service aircraft flight was made by the Tiger Moth on August 15, 1949.[1] A small-scale training was carried out in the following years.

Further development of aviation in North Vietnam began in 1956, when a number of trainees were sent to the USSR and China for pilot training. They were organized into two groups, for pilots and mechanics, respectively; and among others, utilized the Czechoslovak Zlín Z-226 and Aero Ae-45. The first unit of the VPAF was the No. 919 Transport Regiment (Trung đoàn Không quân Vận tải 919), organized on May 1, 1959, with An-2, Li-2, Il-14 aircraft, followed by the No. 910 Training Regiment (Trung đoàn Không quân 910) with Yak-18 trainers.[1] In 1963 the Air Force and Air Defense Force were merged into the Air and Air Defence Force (Quân chủng Phòng không - Không quân).

1964–74 (North Vietnam)Edit

North Vietnamese Antiaircraft Weapons

Anti-aircraft systems of Vietnam People's Air Force against U.S. fighters and bombers in Operation Linebacker and Operation Linebacker II

The first North Vietnamese combat plane was a T-28 Trojan trainer, whose pilot defected from the Royal Lao Air Force; it was utilized from early 1964 by the North Vietnamese as a night fighter. The T-28 was the first North Vietnamese aircraft to shoot down a U.S. aircraft, a C-123, on February 15, 1964.[1]

The North Vietnamese Air Force (NVAF) received its first jet fighter aircraft, the MiG-17 in February 1964, but they were initially stationed at air bases on Mainland China, while their pilots were being trained. On February 3, 1964, the first fighter regiment No. 921 (Trung đoàn Không quân Tiêm kích 921), aka "Red Star squadron", was formed, and on August 6 it arrived from China in North Vietnam with its MiG-17s.[1] On September 7, the No. 923 fighter regiment, aka "Yen The Squadron", led by Lt. Col. Nguyen Phuc Trach, was formed. In May 1965, No. 16 bomber company (Đại đội Không quân Ném bom 16) was formed with Il-28 twin engine bombers. Only one Il-28 sortie was flown in 1972 against Royal Laotian forces.

VPAF MiG-21 landing with chute

A MiG-21 fighter in VPAF. During Vietnam War, MiG-21s equipped AA-2 air-to-air missile

F-105 hit by SA-2 over Vietnam

USAF's F-105 Thunderchief bomber was hit and crashed by VPAF's SA-2 missile

The North Vietnamese Air Force's first jet air-to-air engagement with U.S. aircraft was on April 3, 1965. The NVAF claimed the shooting down of two US Navy F-8 Crusader, which was not confirmed by US sources, although they acknowledged having encountered MiGs.[1] Consequently, April 3 became "North Vietnamese Air Force Day". On April 4 the VPAF (NVAF) scored the first confirmed victories to be acknowledged by both sides. The US fighter community was shocked when relatively slow, post-Korean era MiG-17 fighters shot down advanced F-105 Thunderchief fighters-bombers attacking the Thanh Hóa Bridge. The two downed F-105s were carrying their normal heavy bomb load, and were not able to react to their attackers.[1]

In 1965, the NVAF were supplied with supersonic MiG-21s by the USSR which were used for high speed GCI controlled hit and run intercepts against American air strike groups. The MiG-21 tactics became so effective, that by late 1966, an operation was mounted to especially deal with the MiG-21 threat. Led by Colonel Robin Olds on 2 January 1967, Operation Bolo lured MiG-21s into the air, thinking they were intercepting a F-105 strike group, but instead found a sky full of missile armed F-4 Phantom IIs set for aerial combat. The result was a loss of almost half the inventory of MiG-21 interceptors, at a cost of no U.S. losses. The VPAF (NVAF) stood down for additional training after this setback.

Meanwhile, the disappointing performances of US Air Force and US Navy (USN) airmen, even though flying the contemporary advanced aircraft of those times, combined with a legacy of successes from World War II and the Korean War, resulted in a total revamping of aerial combat training for the USN in 1968 (Top Gun school; established 1969). The designs for an entire generation of aircraft, with engineering for optimized daylight air to air combat (dog fighting) against both older, as well as for emerging MiG fighters, were being put to the drawing board. US forces could not consistently track low flying MiGs on radar, and were hampered by restrictive rules of engagement (ROE) which required pilots to visually acquire their targets, nullifying much of the advantage of radar guided missiles, which often proved unreliable when used in combat.

The VPAF (NVAF) was a defensive air arm, with the primary mission of defending North Vietnam, and until the last stages of the war, did not conduct air operations into South Vietnam; nor did the NVAF conduct general offensive actions against enemy naval forces off the coast. However it did conduct limited attacks on the opposing naval vessels, notably damaging the United States destroyer USS Higbee in 1972. In a separate incident, MiG-17s that ventured over water were shot down by surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) fired by U.S. warships.

RF-4C Phantom II of the 11th TRS is shot down by a S-75 missile over Vietnam, 12 August 1967

F4 Phantom being shot down by an SA-2 on 12 August 1967 near Hanoi, Vietnam

VPAF pilots with MiG-17s

The first squadron from the 923rd from fight: Luy Huy Chao (6 kills), Le Hai (7 kills), Mai Duc Tai (2 kills), and Hoang Van Ky (5 kills, killed 5 June 1967) in front of their grey MiG-17s. These pilots downed a F-4 Phantom on 24 June 1967 and an F-105 the following day

The VPAF (NVAF) did not engage all US sorties. Most US aircraft were destroyed by SA-2 surface-to-air missiles or anti-aircraft artillery (AAA), and in some cases, even small arms. Typically, VPAF MiGs would not engage unless it was to their advantage. Some of the aerial tactics used were similar to Operation Bolo, which lured the NVAF to the fight.

On March 24, 1967, regiments Nos. 921, 923 and 919 were incorporated into the 371st Air Division "Thăng Long" (Sư đoàn Không quân 371). In 1969, No. 925 fighter regiment was formed, flying the Shenyang J-6 (the Chinese-built MiG-19). In 1972 the fourth fighter regiment, No. 927 "Lam Son", was formed.[1]

U.S. Navy ace Randy Cunningham believed that he shot down a Mig-17 piloted by the mythical "Nguyen Toon" or "Colonel Tomb" while flying his F4 Phantom. However, no research has been able to identify Col. Tomb's existence; Cunningham most likely downed a flight leader of the 923rd Regiment. Legend states Col. Toon downed 13 US aircraft during his tenure.[2] Many North Vietnamese pilots were not only skilled but unorthodox, as Cunningham found out after making elementary tactical errors.[3] The resulting dogfight became extended. Cunningham climbed steeply, and the MiG pilot surprised Cunningham by climbing as well. Using his Top Gun training, Cunningham finally forced the MiG out ahead of him and destroyed it. In fact, there wasn't any pilot in VPAF named Nguyễn Toon, he was a fictional character of the American pilots and they often made jokes with the dissertation. As a goodwill of the American pilots, Colonel Toon was a combination of good pilots in Vietnam, like the "solo artist" lonely night bombing in World War II was called Washing Machine Charlie.

There were several times during the war that the U.S. bombing restrictions of North Vietnamese Airfields were lifted. Many VPAF (NVAF) aircraft were destroyed on the ground, and those that were not, were withdrawn to a sanctuary in China. In December 1972, the North Vietnamese air defences nearly exhausted their supply of surface-to-air missiles trying to down the high-flying B-52 raids over the North. The North Vietnamese Air Defense Network was degraded by electronic countermeasures (ECM) and other suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) measures. Though the North Vietnamese forces claim over 81 US aircraft as shot down during Operation Linebacker II, (including 34 B-52s, two attributed to the VPAF),[4] most sources acknowledge only 27 aircraft lost by the Americans.[5]

After the negotiated end of American involvement in early 1973, the No. 919 transport air group (Lữ đoàn Không quân vận tải 919), was formed; and equipped with fix-winged aircraft, as well as helicopters (rotor-wing) in November.

During the 1975 Spring Offensive, the bombing of Tan Son Nhut Air Base, the only airstrike conducted by the VPAF, occurred on April 28, 1975, just two days before the Fall of Saigon. The operation was carried out by the VPAF's Quyet Thang Squadron, using captured A-37s aircraft flown by hero pilot Nguyen Thanh Trung who had bombed the Presidential Palace in Saigon, less than one month earlier before defecting to the north.

During the Vietnam War, NVAF used the MiG-17F, PF (J-5); MiG-19 (J-6), MiG-21F-13, PF, PFM and MF fighters.[1] They claimed to have shot down 266 US aircraft, and US claimed to have shot down or destroyed 204 MiGs aircraft and at least six An-2s, of which 196 were confirmed with solid evidence (100 MiG-17s, 10 MiG-19s and 86 MiG-21s). However, VPAF admits only 154 MiGs were lost through all causes, including 131 in air combat [6]). Like that, total kill ratio would be 1:1.3 to 1:2.[7][8] With the number of losses to MiGs confirmed by US (121 aircraft shotdown and 7 damaged[7][8]), the kill ratio turn 1.7:1 against the MiGs, or 1.1:1 even accepting the VPAF's figure of only 131 in air combat.

1975–present (reunified Vietnam)Edit

Su22 so 5815

Fighter/bomber Su-22M number 5815 belongs to the 923rd Regiment which took part in the first flight to patrolling Spratly islands on February 10, 1988

The VPAF did not play a major role during the Ho Chi Minh Campaign in 1975. The only sorties flown were conducted by five captured VNAF A-37s. SA-2s were transported into South Vietnam to counter possible US military air strikes. The US could not bring back their air power during the 1975 offensive, which had proven decisive in 1972, and the VNAF did not have the capability to strike targets in the north nor to defend against the onslaught in the south.

After the end of the Vietnam War (called the American War in Vietnam) in May 1975, more regiments were formed. No. 935 fighter regiment "Đồng Nai" and no. 937 fighter-bomber regiment "Hậu Giang", followed by no. 918 transport regiment "Hong Ha" and no. 917 mixed transport regiment "Đồng Tháp" were created in July 1975. In September 1975, the four newly created regiments were formed into the 370nd Air Division "Lê Lợi" and the 372nd Air Division "Hai Van" was formed, including among others the 925th fighter regiment.[1]

On May 31, 1977, the Vietnam People's Air Force (Không quân Nhân dân Việt Nam) was separated from the Air Defense Force (Quân chủng Phòng không).[1]

When Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1979, former VNAF A-37s flew most of the ground support missions. These aircraft were more suited to the role than the MiGs. Former VNAF F-5Es, C-123s, C-130s, and UH-1s were used by the VPAF for many years after the end of the War.

In the years between 1953 and 1991, approximately 700 warplanes, 120 helicopters, and 158 missile complexes have been supplied to North Vietnam by the USSR and PR China (primarily the MiG-19 (J6 series). Even today, three-quarters of Vietnamese weaponry has been made in post-Cold-War Russia.[9]

Today the VPAF is in the midst of modernization. It still operates late model MiG-21s, Su-22s, aircraft of the Cold War era.[10][11] However, it has recently been modernizing its air force with models of the Su-27-SK air superiority fighter following closer military ties, and an array of arms deals with Russia. To date, Vietnam has ordered and received 12 of these aircraft. In 2004, it also acquired 4 modified variants of the Su-30 MK2V, newer models of the Su-27. In May 2009, they have inked a deal to procure additional 12 aircraft from the Russian to bolster their aging fleet. The Vietnamese air force has also acquired new advanced air defense systems, including two S-300 PMU1 (NATO designation: SA-20) short-to-high altitude SAM batteries in a deal worth $300 million with Russia.[9]

A twin-engine light transport aircraft of the 918th Transport Regiment crashed into a field on the outskirts of the capital Hanoi (Thanh Tri District) on Tuesday morning 8 April 2008 during a training mission, killing five Vietnamese military pilots. The plane took off from Gia Lam Airport in Hanoi, Northern Vietnam, with five officers aboard for a training exercise. It crashed on its way back to the airport.

Fighter Pilots AcesEdit

MIG17 so 2047

The MiG-17 number 2047 was flown by Nguyen Van Bay on April 19, 1972 and bombed US Navy light cruiser USS Oklahoma City

MIG21 MF so 5121

The MiG-21 number 5121 was flown by Pham Tuan December 26, 1972, during Operation Linebacker II and shot down B-52 Stratofortress

MiG 17 tail Vietnam

MiG 17 tail showing insignia

In Vietnam War, many Vietnamese pilots had notable achievements, and were honored in The Fighter Pilots Aces list of the world.[12]

Name Victories VPAF Aircraft Regiment Service
Nguyễn Văn Cốc Nine kills MiG-21 921st Fighter Regiment 1967-69
Mai Văn Cường Eight kills MiG-21 921st Fighter Regiment 1966-68
Nguyễn Hồng Nhị Eight kills MiG-21 921st/927th Fighter Regiment 1966-72
Phạm Thanh Ngân Eight kills MiG-21 921st Fighter Regiment 1967-69
Đặng Ngọc Ngự Seven kills MiG-21 921st Fighter Regiment 1966-72
Nguyễn Văn Bảy Seven kills MiG-17 923rd Fighter Regiment 1966-72
Lê Hải Six kills MiG-17 923rd Fighter Regiment 1967-72
Lê Thanh Đạo Six kills MiG-21 927th Fighter Regiment 1971-72
Lưu Huy Chao Six kills MiG-17 923rd Fighter Regiment 1966-68
Nguyễn Đăng Kỉnh Six kills MiG-21 921st Fighter Regiment 1967-68
Nguyễn Đức Soát Six kills MiG-21 921st/927th Fighter Regiment 1969-72
Nguyễn Ngọc Độ Six kills MiG-21 921st Fighter Regiment 1967-68
Nguyễn Nhật Chiêu Six Kills MiG-17/MiG-21 921st Fighter Regiment 1965-67
Nguyễn Tiến Sâm Six kills MiG-21 921st/927th Fighter Regiment 1968-72
Vũ Ngọc Đỉnh Six kills MiG-21 921st Fighter Regiment 1966-70
Nguyễn Văn Nghĩa Five kills MiG-21 927th Fighter Regiment 1972

About the other pilots, see Safarik's comprehensive list.[13]

Organizational structureEdit

Air Force and Air Defense DivisionsEdit

Vietnam People's Army
Vietnam People's Army signal
Flag of the People's Army of Vietnam
Ministry of Defence
Command
Vietnam People's Army General Staff insigniaGeneral Staff
Services
Vietnam People's Army insignia Ground Force
Vietnam People's Air Force insignia Air Force
Vietnam People's Navy insignia Navy
Vietnam Border Defense Force insignia Border Guard
Vietnam Marine Police insignia Coast Guard
Ranks of the Vietnamese Military
Ground Force ranks and insignia
Air Force ranks and insignia
Navy ranks and insignia
Border Guard ranks and insignia
Coast Guard ranks and insignia
History of the Vietnamese Military
History of Vietnamese military ranks
Military history of Vietnam

Air Division and Regimental Names of the VPAF[14] Recent base information is from the Vietnamese Wikipedia VPAF article.

Command Division Regiment Name Equipment Base
High Command of Air Defense and Air Force 371st Air Force Division
(Thăng Long Air Wing)
921st Fighter Red Star Squadron Su-22M-4/UM-3K Noi Bai International Airport
923rd Fighter-bomber Yen The Squadron Su-30MK2V Tho Xuan
927th Fighter Lam Son Squadron MiG-21bis/UM Képdisambiguation needed
931st Fighter Yên Bái Squadron Su-22M-4/UM-3K Yên Bái
916th Helicopter Ba Vi Squadron Mi-6, Mi-8, Mi-24D, Mi-171 Hoa Lac
918th Air Transport Hong Ha Squadron An-2, An-26, An-30, M-28 Gia Lam
372nd Air Force Division
(Hai Van Air Wing)
929th Fighter-Bomber Son Tra Squadron MiG-21bis/UM Da Nang
930th Helicopter Mi-8, Mi-171 Da Nang
940th Fighter/Air Training Tây Sơn Squadron Su-27SK/UBK/PU Phu Cat
370th Air Force Division
(Lê Lợi Air Wing)
937th Fighter-Bomber Hậu Giang Squadron Su-22M-4/UM-3K Thanh Son
935th Fighter Đồng Nai Squadron Su-30MK2V Bien Hoa
917th Mixed Air Transport Đồng Tháp Squadron UH-1H, Mi-8, Mi-171 Tan Son Nhat
Air Force Officer School 910th Air Training L-39C Dong Tac
920nd Air Training Yak-52 Cam Ranh
361st Air Defense Division
(Ha Noi Air Defense Division)
218th SA Artillery Hoa Lư Regiment ZSU-23-4, SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-9 Gaskin, SA-13 Gopher, SA-20 Gargoyle Ha Noi
280th SA Artillery Hong Linh Regiment
236th SA Missile Song Da Regiment
250th SA Missile Thăng Longdisambiguation needed Regiment
257th SA Missile Red Flag Regiment
363rd Air Defense Division
(Hai Phong Air Defense Division)
240th AA Artillery ZSU-23-4, SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-9 Gaskin, SA-13 Gopher Hai Phong
213th SA Missile
238th SA Missile Hạ Long Regiment
285th SA Missile Nam Trieu Regiment
365th Air Defense Division
(Bac Thai Air Defense Division)
228th SA Artillery Ham Rong Regiment ZSU-23-4, SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-9 Gaskin, SA-13 Gopher, SA-6 Gainful Bắc Giang
267th SA Missile Dien Bien Regiment
284th SA Missile Song La Regiment
375th Air Defense Division
(Da Nang Air Defense Division)
224th SA Artillery To Vinh Dien Regiment SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-6 Gainful Da Nang
275th SA Missile Soc Son Regiment
282nd SA Missile Tam Giang Regiment
377th Air Defense Division 591st SA Artillery Truong Son Regiment SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-6 Gainful Cam Ranh
274th SA Missile Hung Vuong Regiment
367th Air Defense Division
(HCMC Air Defense Division)
230th SA Artillery Thong Nhat Regiment SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-6 Gainful, SA-20 Gargoyle Ho Chi Minh city
261st SA Missile Thanh Loa Regiment
263th SA Missile Quang Trung Regiment
276th SA Missile

BasesEdit

Vietnam Air Force Regiments map

Vietnam Fighter Regiments

Some airbases in the south were built by the French, Japanese* (World War II), United States Air Force or United States Navy for South Vietnam. The northern bases were likely built with assistance and/or use by the French, China or Soviet Union during the Vietnam War.

Air Force MuseumEdit

There are two Air Force museums in Vietnam: Vietnam People's Air Force Museum, Hanoi and Vietnam People's Air Force Museum, Ho Chi Minh City.

Service branchesEdit

Aircraft Air Defense Missiles Air Defense Artillery Paratroops Radar Surveillance
Vietnam People's Air Force pilot
Vietnam People's Air Force Missile
Vietnam People's Air Force Anti Aircraft gun
Vietnam People's Air Force Paratroops
Vietnam People's Air Force Radar

Aircraft inventoryEdit

Most of the VPAF's aircraft were supplied from the Soviet Union and PRC, but hundreds were left over by the United States via the Republic of Vietnam, most of which are no longer in service.

Photo Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service Notes
Fighter aircraft 385 total
Sukhoi Su-30 inflight
Sukhoi Su-30 Flag of Russia.svg Russia Multi-role fighter Su-30MK2V
24 12 more on order.[15]
MAKS-2007-Su-27
Sukhoi Su-27 Flag of Russia.svg Russia Air superiority fighter Su-27SK/UBK[16] 10 .[17]
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21PF USAF
Mikoyan MiG-21 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Fighter MiG-21Bis "Fishbed-L/N/UM" 200+ 250 aircraft were transferred to Vietnam from USSR during the Vietnam War.
Sukhoi Su-22M4 in 2004
Sukhoi Su-22 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Ground attack Su-22M3/4 "Fitter-J/K" 145 In 1976-1985, 40 Sukhoi Su-22Ms were given to Vietnam from Soviet Union . In 2005, Vietnam bought 40 used Sukhoi Su-22M4s from Poland .In 2006-2007, Vietnam bought few more used Sukhoi Su-22M4/UM3s from Ukraine and Czech Republic.
Attack helicopter Total 36
Vietnamese Air Force Mil Mi-24A MRD
Mil Mi-24 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Attack helicopter Mi-24 "Hind" 36 unknown status
Trainer aircraft Total 62
Aero L-39 Albatros-001
Aero L-39 Albatros Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovakia Trainer L-39C[18] 26 Subsonic jet trainer
Yak130MAKS
Yakovlev Yak-130 Flag of Russia.svg Russia Advanced trainer / Light attack Yak-130 8 on order[19]
Yakkes Yak-52 RA-3085K
Yakovlev Yak-52 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Trainer Yak-52 36
Transport aircraft 61+ total
Vietnamese Air Force Antonov An-26 Wadman
An-26 Curl Flag of Ukraine Ukraine Transport An-26 45+
Antonov An-2R on ski Ryabtsev
An-2 Colt Flag of Poland.svg Poland Light transport An-2TD 15+
M28 Skytruck Góraszka 2
PZL M28 Skytruck Flag of Poland.svg Poland Light transport M-28 11 In 2005, Vietnam bought 12 PZL M28-1Rs (M-28B) from Poland.In November 2005, 1 PZl M-28 of VPAF crashed in Gia Lam district, Hanoi. All three crewmembers died.[20]
Transport helicopter Total 165
Baltic Airlines Mil Mi-8 Aladyshkin
Mi-8 Hip Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Transport helicopter Mil Mi-8 69
Afghan MI-17 helicopters
Mi-17 Hip-H Flag of Russia.svg Russia Transport Mil Mi-17/171 67
Aerospatiale HH-65
Eurocopter Dauphin Flag of France.svg France SAR helicopter SA-365 N2 6 From the Ministry of Defence
Eurocopter Cougar
Aérospatiale Super Puma Flag of France.svg France Civilian transport AS-332L2 8 From the Ministry of Defence. 1 Super Puma operated by Southern Service Flight Company (SFC) was lost in sea transportation mission for offshore platform in 2007.
Vietnamese Air Force Huey MRD
UH-1H Huey Flag of the United States.svg United States Utility UH-1H 15+
Miscellaneous Aircraft
AV.UAV.SM1[21] Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam UAV unknown unknown
AV.UAV.S1 Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam UAV unknown unknown
AV.UAV.S2[22] Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam UAV unknown unknown
AV.UAV.S3 Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam UAV unknown unknown
AV.UAV.S4 Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam UAV Unknown unknown
M-400 UAV Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam UAV M400-CT Currently used for air defenses training purpose.
VNS-41 Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam Amphibious VNS-41 12 Domestic produced light plane type ULM with floatation devices.

Air DefenceEdit

Photo Name Origin Type Versions Nọ of launchers Nọ of missiles Notes
Air Defence Missile
ZRS S-300PS 2007 G1
SA-20 Gargoyle
(S-300)
Flag of Russia.svg Russia long range SAM system S-300PMU-1 2 batteries, 12 launchers
S125 Neva 250 brPVO VS, september 01, 2012
SA-3 Goa
(S-125 Neva/Pechora)
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR surface-to-air missile S-125 Pechora 2TM (modernized version of SA-3) 100 launchers Unknown
SA-2 Guideline
SA-2 Guideline
(S-75 Dvina)
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR surface-to-air missile S-75 Volga 2MV 300 launchers 1000+ missiles
Sa6 1
SA-6 Gainful
(2K12 Kub)
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR surface-to-air missile SA-6 MV 36 launchers 1600 missiles
Strela 10
SA-13 Gopher
(Strela-10)
Flag of Russia.svg Russia surface-to-air missile Strela 10M3MV 20 launchers 200 missiles Indigenously produced in Vietnam
SA-7
SA-7 Grail
(Strela-2)
Flag of Russia.svg Russia Man portable surface-to-air missile launcher Strela 2M 100 launchers 350 missiles
Igla-Super
SA-24 Grinch
(Igla)
Flag of Russia.svg Russia Man portable surface-to-air missile launcher Igla-S 20 launchers 400 missiles Indigenously produced in Vietnam
Air Defence Artillery
ZSU-23-4 Shilka, Togliatti, Russia-2
ZSU-23-4 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR SPAAA ZSU-23-4M 100 systems[23]
S-60-57mm-hatzerim-1
57 mm AZP S-60 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR AAA guns S-60 250
M1939-37mm-hatzerim-1
37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K) Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR AAA guns Twin barrel version 260
ZU-23-2 in Saint Petersburg
ZU-23-2 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR AAA guns 2500
14,5-мм счетверенная зенитная пулеметная установка конструкции Лещинского ЗПУ-4 (1)
ZPU-4 Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR AA Machine gun 1300

MissilesEdit

Photo Name Origin Type Versions Used Nọ of missiles Notes
Kh-31AD
AS-17 Krypton Flag of Russia.svg Russia anti-ship missile Kh-31A
Kh-31P
Su-30MK2V 100 missiles delivery in 2012[24]
Kh-29L (1)
AS-14 Kedge Flag of Russia.svg Russia anti-ship missile Kh-29T
Kh-29TE
Su-30MK2V
Su-27SK
100 missiles [25]
Mig 29 firing AA-10
AA-10 Alamo Flag of Russia.svg Russia air-to-air missile R 27 Su-30MK2V
Su-27SK
- [26]
R-73 HuAF
AA-11 Archer Flag of Russia.svg Russia air-to-air missile R-73 Su-30MK2V
Su-27SK
- [26]
Vympel-R-77-maks2009
AA-12 Adder Flag of Russia.svg Russia air-to-air missile R-77 Su-30MK2V
Su-27SK
- ..
AS-10 Kerry on Su-24 2008 G4
AS-10 Karen Flag of Russia.svg Russia anti-ship missile Kh-25ML
Kh-25MP/Kh-35MPU
Kh-25MR
Su-22M4
AS-16 Kickback 2008 G1
AS-9 Kyle Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR anti-ship missile Kh-28E Su-22M4 [27]

Retired:

Some jet fighters (F-5s and A-37s) were auctioned in 1998, and are currently owned by private companies, and individuals in America, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe.

The current procurement plan of the VPAF is to equip up to 3 regiments with 3 x 24 Sukhoi Su-30 "Flanker" until 2015. VPAF also intends to upgrade its air defense system with more effective missile system such as Buk missile system or Tor missile system. Vietnam may be the third customer to buy the S-400 Triumf missile system around 2017[28]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Ivanov, S.V. (2000). "Boyevoye primenenye MiG-17 i MiG-19 vo Vietnamye (Боевое применение МиГ-17 и МиГ-19 во Вьетнаме)". 
  2. Sherman, Stephen (October 2002). "Randy Cunningham". Acepilots.com. http://www.acepilots.com/vietnam/cunningham.html. 
  3. Hall, George (1987). Top Gun: The Navy's Fighter Weapons School. Presido Press. 
  4. "Vạch nhiễu tìm thù hạ "ngáo ộp" B52". Tin nhanh Việt Nam ra thế giới (World News Vietnam) – Vietbao.vn. 23 December 2007. http://vietbao.vn/Phong-su/Vach-nhieu-tim-thu-ha-ngao-op-B52/70107581/262/. 
  5. See "Published Government Documents" and "Secondary Sources" below.
  6. Migs over North Vietnam: The Vietnam People's Air Force in Combat, 1965-75, Stackpole Military History
  7. 7.0 7.1 ACIG Team (16 September 2003). "Vietnamese Air-to-Air Victories, Part 1". Indochina Database. Air Combat Information Group. http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_245.shtml. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 ACIG Team (16 September 2003). "Vietnamese Air-to-Air Victories, Part 2". Indochina Database. Air Combat Information Group. http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_246.shtml. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Blagov, Sergei (5 September 2003). "Russian missiles to guard skies over Vietnam". Moscow. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/EI05Ag02.html. 
  10. "Su-17,-20,-22 FITTER (SUKHOI)". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/su-17-specs.htm. 
  11. "MiG-21 FISHBED". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/mig-21-specs.htm. 
  12. Bowers, Al; Lednicer, David (17 May 1999). "Fighter Pilot Aces List". The Air University. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/aces/aces.htm#vietnam. 
  13. ŠAFAŘÍK, Jan Josef (20 December 2010). "VIETNAM: War In Vietnam". http://aces.safarikovi.org/victories/vietnam.html. 
  14. MiG-17 and MiG-19 Units of the Vietnam War by István Toperczer
  15. Russia to Deliver 12 Su-30 Fighter Jets to Vietnam – Source - Rian.ru, 21 August 2013
  16. "Ukraine to Repair Engines of Vietnamese Su-27 Aircraft". July 23, 2013. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/07/ukraine-to-repair-engines-of-vietnamese.html. 
  17. "Vietnam opens new maintenance line for Sukhoi Su-27 and Su-30 fighters". November 2, 2013. http://www.airrecognition.com/index.php/archive-world-worldwide-news-air-force-aviation-aerospace-air-military-defence-industry/2013-global-news-worldwide-world-international-air-force-aviation-/november-2013-global-news-worldwide-world-international-air-force-aviation-aerospace-/858-china-opens-new-maintenance-line-for-sukhoi-su-27-and-su-30-fighters-.html. 
  18. Flightglobal Insight | World Air Forces 2011/2012
  19. "Поставки Россией военной техники за рубеж". Russia's supply of military technology abroad. http://apsheronsk.bozo.ru/Navy/Contracts.html. 
  20. http://phunutoday.vn/xahoiol/tieudiem/201111/Bao-Trung-Quoc-noi-ve-may-bay-tuan-tieu-M28-cua-Viet-Nam-2110299/
  21. "Vietnam Successfully Tests First Unmanned Aircraft". May 5, 2013. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/05/vietnam-successfully-tests-first.html. 
  22. "Vietnam UAV Flying at Night, Facing the South China Sea". May 28, 2013. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/05/vietnam-uav-flying-at-night-facing.html. 
  23. "ZSU-23-4". Jane's Information Group. 2008-10-30. http://www8.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/yb/jlad/jlad0057.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  24. "Việt Nam mua tên lửa chống hạm siêu âm cho Su-30MK2". The Philippines bought supersonic anti-ship missile for Su-30MK2. 18 July 2008. http://vietnamdefence.com/Home/tintuc/vietnam/Viet-Nam-mua-ten-lua-chong-ham-sieu-am-cho-Su30MK2/20127/51833.vnd. 
  25. "Soviet Missiles: Air-to-Surface Missiles". http://personal.inet.fi/cool/foxfour/sovmis/sovmis-as.html. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Vietnam Arranges Event for Media for the Su-30MK2 Missile". April 1, 2013. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/02/vietnam-arranges-event-for-media-for-su.html. 
  27. Kopp, Dr Carlo (August 2009). "Soviet/Russian Tactical Air to Surface Missiles". Air Power Australia (http://www.ausairpower.net). http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-Rus-ASM.html. 
  28. "Việt Nam là khách hàng mua S-400 thứ ba". Vietnam is the third S-400 buyer. Vietnam Press (baodatviet.vn). 24 March 2012. http://quocphong.baodatviet.vn/Home/QPCN/Viet-Nam-la-khach-hang-mua-S400-thu-ba/20123/191370.datviet. 

Published Government Documents

  • Boyne, Walter J. (May 1997). "Linebacker II". http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/1997/November%201997/1197linebacker.aspx. 
  • Gilster, Herman L. The Air War in Southeast Asia: Case Studies of Selected Campaigns. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 1993.
  • Head, William P. War from Above the Clouds: B-52 Operations During the Second Indochina War and the Effects of the Air War on Theory and Doctrine. Maxwell AFB AL: Air University Press, 2002.
  • McCarthy, Brig. Gen. James R. and LtCol. George B. Allison, Linebacker II: A View from the Rock. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 1979.
  • Nalty, Bernard C. Air War Over South Vietnam: 1969–1975. Washington, D.C.: Center of Air Force History, 1995.
  • Schlight, John, A War Too Long. Washington, D.C.: Center of Air Force History, 1993.
  • Tilford, Earl H. Setup: What the Air Force Did in Vietnam and Why. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 1991.
  • Thompson, Wayne, To Hanoi and Back: The U.S. Air Force and North Vietnam, 1966–1973. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002.

Secondary Sources

  • Asselin, Pierre, A Bitter Peace: Washington, Hanoi and the Making of the Paris Agreement, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Ambrose, Stephen E., The Christmas Bombing in Robert Cowley, ed. The Cold War: A Military History, New York: Random House, 2005.
  • Casey, Michael, Clark Dougan, Samuel Lipsman, Jack Sweetman, Stephen Weiss, et al., Flags Into Battle. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1987.
  • Dorr, Robert. Boeing's Cold War Warrior: B-52 Stratofortress. Osprey Publishing, 2000. ISBN 978-1-84176-097-1
  • Drendel, Lou, Air War over Southeast Asia: Vol. 3, 1971–1975. Carrollton TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1984.
  • Hobson, Chris, "Vietnam Air Losses USAF/NAVY/MARINE, Fixed-wing aircraft losses Southeast Asia 1961–1973. 2001. ISBN 1-8578-1156
  • Karnow, Stanley, Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Books, 1983.
  • Lipsman, Samuel, Stephen Weiss, et al., The False Peace: 1972–74. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1985.
  • Littauer, Raphael and Norman Uphoff, The Air War in Indochina. Boston: Beacon Press, 1972.
  • McCarthy, Donald J. Jr. MiG Killers: A Chronology of US Air Victories in Vietnam 1965–1973. North Branch, Minnesota: Speciality Press, 2009. ISBN 978-1-58007-136-9.
  • Morocco, John, Rain of Fire: Air War, 1969–1973. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1985.
  • Pribbenow, Merle L.(trans) Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam. University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1175-4
  • Zaloga, Steven J. Red SAM: The SA-2 Guideline Anti-Aircraft Missile. Osprey Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84603-062-8
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